Gymnogyps californianus californianus (Shaw, 1797)

California condor



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Vultur californianus Shaw, 1797 (original combination)


Conservation Status

Reintroduced to the wild





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Shaw, G. (1797). Vultur californianus: the Californian Vulture. The naturalist’s miscellany 9: fasc. XCVII.

Other references:

Alvarenga, H., Brito, G., Migotto, R., Hubbe, A. and Höflibg, E. (2008). Pleistovultur nevesi gen. et sp. nov. (Aves: Vulturidae) and the diversity of condors and vultures in the South American Pleistocene. Ameghiniana 45: 613-618.

Bakker, Victoria J. et al. (2024). Practical models to guide the transition of California condors from a conservation-reliant to a self-sustaining species. Biological Conservation 291: 110447.

Belanger, Patrick. (2022). California Condors, Source Credibility, and Wildlife Conservation Messaging. Journalism and Media 3: 419-435.

Emslie, Steven D. and Mead, Jim I. (2023). Two New Late Quaternary Avifaunas from the East-Central Great Basin with the Description of a New Species of Falco. Western North American Naturalist 83(1): 33-50.

Felton, Rachel G. et al. (In Press, 2020). Identification of California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) estrogen receptor variants and their activation by xenoestrogens. General and Comparative Endocrinology. doi: [Abstract]

Johnson, J. A., Brown, J. W., Fuchs, J., and Mindell, D. P. (2016). Multi-locus phylogenetic inference among New World vultures (Aves: Cathartidae). Mol. Phylogent. Evol. 105, 193–199.

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292.

Lymbery, Alan J. and Smit, Nico J. (2023). Conservation of parasites: A primer. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 21: 255-263.

Mackenzie, John P. S. (1977). Birds in Peril: A Guide to the Endangered Birds of the United States and Canada. Toronto: Pagurian Press.

Moir, John. (2006). Return of the Condor: The Race to Save Our Largest Bird from Extinction. Lyons Press.

Montgomery, Sy and Strombeck, Tianne. (2020). Condor Comeback. Houghton Miflin Harcourt Publishing Company.

Moran, Brigid M. et al. (2021). Correcting parentage relationships in the endangered California Condor: Improving mean kinship estimates for conservation management. Ornithological Applications. [Abstract]

Pacheco, M. Andreína  et al. (2020). The endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) population is exposed to local haemosporidian parasites. Scientific Reports 10: 17947.

Padró J, Lambertucci SA, Perrig PL, Pauli JN. (2020). Andean and California condors possess dissimilar genetic composition but exhibit similar demographic histories. Ecol Evol 10:13011-13021.

Robinson, Jacqueline A. et al. (2021). Genome-wide diversity in the California condor tracks its prehistoric abundance and decline. Current Biology.

Smith, Donal et al. (2023). Extinct in the wild: The precarious state of Earth’s most threatened group of species. Science 379(6634): eadd2889.

Snyder, Noel and Snyder, Helen. (2000). The California Condor: A Saga of Natural History and Conservation. London: Academic Press.

Vargas, Pablo. (2023). Exploring ‘endangered living fossils’ (ELFs) among monotypic genera of plants and animals of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 11: 1100503.


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