Vulpes macrotis macrotis Merriam, 1888:136

Long-eared kitfox, Southern California kitfox, Desert kit fox



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Vulpes macrotis arsipus; Vulpes macrotis devia; Vulpes macrotis tenuirostris


Conservation Status


Last record: 1903 (Goodwin & Goodwin, 1973); by 1910 (Grinnell et al. 1937)



Riverside County, California, USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Merriam, C. H. (1888). Description of a new fox from southern California. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 4: 135-138.


Other references:

Anthony, H. E. (1924). Field book of North American mammals. G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New York.

Armstrong, W. H., and C. H. Anthony. (1942). An epizootic of canine distemper in a zoological park. Cornell Vet. 32: 286-288.

Blair, W. F., A. P. Blair, P. Broadkorb, F. R. Cagle, and G. A. Moore. 1968. Vertebrates of the United States, Second edition. McGraw-Hill, NY, 616 pp.

Bueler, L. E. 1973. Wild dogs of the world. Stein & Day, New York, 274 pp.

Clark, H. O. Jr. (2011). The history of arid-land fox discoveries in North America. Archives of Natural History 38(2): 300-312.

Dragoo, Jerry W., Choate, Jerry R., Yates, Terry L. and O'Farrell, Thomas P. (1990). Evolutionary and Taxonomic Relationships among North American Arid-Land Foxes. Journal of Mammalogy 71(3): 318-332. [Abstract]

Egoscue, H. J. (1979). Vulpes velox. Mammalian Species 122: 1-5.

Goodwin, Harry A. and Goodwin, J. M. (1973). List of mammals which have become extinct or are possibly extinct since 1600. Int. Union Conserv. Nat. Occas. Pap. 8: 1-20.

Grinnell, J., Dixon, J. S. and Linsdale, J. M. (1937). Fur-bearing Mammals of California, volume 2, pp. 377-777. Berkeley: University of California Press. xiv + 400 p.

Jones, J. Knox Jnr., Carter, Dilford C., Genoways, Hugh H., Hoffmann, Robert S. and Rice, Dale W. (1986). Revised Checklist of North American Mammals North of Mexico, 1986. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Texas Tech University 107: 1-22.

Lechleitner, R. R. 1969. Wild mammals of Colorado: Their appearance, habits, distribution and abundance. Pruett Publishing Co., Colorado, 254 pp.

McGrew, J. C. (1979). Vulpes macrotis. Mammalian Species 123: 1-6.

Mercure, A., K. Ralls, K. P. Koepfli, and R. K. Wayne. 1993 [1994]. Genetic subdivisions among small canids: Mitochondrial DNA differentiation of swift, kit, and arctic foxes. Evolution, 47:1313-1328.

Packard, R. L., and J. H. Bowers. 1970. Distributional notes on some foxes from western Texas and eastern New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 14: 450-451.

Rohwer, S. A., and D. L. Kilgore. 1973. Interbreeding in the arid-land foxes, Vulpes velox and V. macrotis. Systematic Zoology, 22:157-165.

Thornton, W. A., and G. C. Creel. 1975. The taxonomic status of kit foxes. Texas Journal of Science 26: 127-136.

Waithman, J., and Roest. A. L. (1977). A taxonomic study of the kit fox, Vulpes macrotis. J. Mamm. 58: 157-164. [Abstract]

Wilson, D. E. and Cole, F. R. (2000). Common names of mammals of the world. Washington DC.


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