Tremarctos floridanus Gidley, 1928

Florida cave bear, Florida spectacled bear, Florida short-faced bear (rarely)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Arctodus floridanus Gidley, 1928; Tremarctos mexicanus Stock, 1950


Conservation Status


Last record: c. 9,000 BC



Calfironia, Florida and Tennessee, USA


Biology & Ecology










Anderson, E. (1984) Who´s who in the Pleistocene: a mammalian bestiary. in: Martin, P.S., R.G. Klein (eds) Quaternary Extinctions. A Prehistoric Revolution, 40-89.

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Churcher, C. S. (2019). Pleistocene Mammals From Extinction Cave, Belize. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. doi: [Abstract]

Cisneros J.C. 2005 New Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from El Salvador. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 8(3), 239-255.

Croxen et al. 2007. Pleistocene geology and paleontology of the Colorado River Delta at Golfo de Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico. Pp. 84-89, in Wild, scenic & rapid—a trip down the Colorado River trough (Robert E. Reynolds, ed.). The 2007 Desert Symposium field guide and abstracts from proceedings, California State University, Desert Studies Consortium, and LSA Associates, Inc.

Faunmap working group. 1994 FAUNMAP: a database documenting late Quaternary distributions of mammal species in the United States. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers 25(1-2), 1-690.

Guilday John E. and Irving, David C. (1967). Extinct Florida Spectacled Bear Tremarctos floridanus (Gidley) from Central Tennessee. Bulletin of the National Speleological Society 29(4): 149-162. [Abstract]

Kurtén, B., and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America. Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 442 pp.

Shaw, C. A., and S. M. Cox. 2006. Mammalian biostratigraphy in the Vallecito Creek-Fish Creek Basin. Pp. 177-191, in Fossil treasures of the Anza-Borrego Desert (G. T. Jefferson and L. Lindsay, eds.). Sunbelt Publications, San Diego.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Soibelzon L.H., Tonni E.P., Bond M. 2005 The fossil record of South American short-faced bears (Ursidae, Tremarctinae). Journal of South American Earth Sciences 20(1-2), 105-113.

Stock, Chester. (1950). Note on a Hyænarctid Bear from the Middle Pliocene of Chihuahua, Mexico. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 49(1): 1-2.


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