Panthera tigris amoyensis Hilzheimer, 1905:598

South China tiger, South Chinese tiger



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Invalid (synonym)

Last record: 1986

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild)





Biology & Ecology










Caldwell, H. R. (1924). Blue Tiger. New York: Abingdon Press.

Caldwell, H. R. (1953). China Coast Family. Chicago, Illinois: Henry Regnery.

C. Coggins (2010) ‘King of the hundred beasts’: a long view of tigers in Southern China. In: Tigers of the World: The Science, Politics, and Conservation of Panthera tigris (Second Edition), eds. R. Tilson & P.J. Nyhus , pp. 431-438. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.

EastSouthWestNorth. (2007, Oct 19). “The South China Tiger Photographs.” Retrieved from

Fàbregas, María C., Fosgate, Geoffrey T. and Koehler, Gary M. (2015). Hunting performance of captive-born South China tigers (Panthera tigris amoyensis) on free-ranging prey and implications for their reintroduction. Biological Conservation 192: 57-64. [Abstract]

Hauben, Jay. (year?). Netizen Reporting and Media Criticism Pressure for a New Journalism The South China Tiger, Anti-CNN and the Wenchuan Earthquake. [incomplete citation]

Jacobs, Ruth. (2008). The Navigator: Philip Nyhus directs the Chinese government to the places where tigers may once again roam free. Colby Magazine 97(3): Article 7. Available at:

Joslin, Paul and Maryanka, Daphne. (1968). Endangered Mammals of the World: Report on Status and Action Treatment. IUCN Publications, New Series, Supplementary Paper No. 13: 34 pp.

Liu, Yue-Chen et al. (In Press, 2018). Genome-Wide Evolutionary Analysis of Natural History and Adaptation in the World’s Tigers. Current Biology. doi:

Lu, H. and Sheng, H. (1986). Distribution and status of the Chinese tiger, pp. 51-58. In: Miller, S. and Everett, D. (eds.). Cats of the World: Biology, Conservation and Management. Washington DC: National Wildlife Federation.

Perry, R. (1965). The World of the Tiger. New York, NY: Atheneum.

Qin, Yiyuan, P.J. Nyhus , C.L. Larson , C.J.W. Carroll , J. Muntifering , T.D. Dahmer , L. Jun & R.L. Tilson. (2015). An assessment of South China tiger reintroduction potential in Hupingshan and Houhe National Nature Reserves, China. Biological Conservation 182: 72-86.

Qin, Yiyuan and Nyhus, Philip J. (2017). Assessing factors influencing a possible South China tiger reintroduction: a survey of international conservation professionals. Environmental Conservation. DOI: [Abstract]

Sun, Xin et al. (2023). Ancient DNA reveals genetic admixture in China during tiger evolution. Nature Ecology & Evolution.

Tang, Tao et al. (2023). Integrated approach considering seasonal variability and habitat uncertainty to map habitat for the prey of South China tiger. Ecological Indicators 148: 110082.

Tilson, R., Defu, H., Muntifering, J. and Nyhus, P. J. (2004). Dramatic decline of wild South China tigers Panthera tigris amoyensis: field survey of priority tiger reserves. Oryx 38: 40-47.

R. Tilson & P.J. Nyhus , eds. (2010) Tigers of the World: The Biology, Politics, and Conservation of Panthera tigris. San Diego, CA: Academic Press/Elsevier.

K. Traylor-Holzer , X. Zhong & Y. Yuzhong (2010) The struggle to save the last South China tigers. In: Tigers of the World: The Science, Politics, and Conservation of Panthera tigris, eds. R. Tilson & P.J. Nyhus , pp. 457-462. San Diego, CA: Academic Press/Elsevier.

Wang, Chen et al. (2021). Population genomic analysis provides strong evidence of the past success and future strategies of South China tiger breeding. Research Square preprint.

Yuan, Yaohua et al. (2020). Reproductive parameters of female South China Tigers in captivity. European Journal of Wildlife Research 66: 37. [Abstract]

Yuan, Yaohua et al. (2022). Comparative analysis of the fecal microbiome and metabolomics of healthy versus captive South China tigers with mild-diarrhea. Canadian Journal of Microbiology.

Zhang, Le et al. (2022). Chromosome-scale genomes reveal genomic consequences of inbreeding in the South China tiger: A comparative study with the Amur tiger. Molecular Ecology Resources.

Zhang, Wenping et al. (2019). Sorting Out the Genetic Background of the Last Surviving South China Tigers. Journal of Heredity. doi: [Abstract]


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