Panthera spelaea spelaea Goldfuss, 1810

European cave lion, Steppe lion



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Felis spelaea Goldfuss, 1810; Panthera leo spelaea Goldfuss, 1810; Panthera tigris spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810)


Conservation Status


Last record: 22.0–21.5 cal kyr BP or later (Marciszak et al., 2022); ca. 12.5 ka (Fosse et al., 2017)



Eurasia & North America


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Goldfuss, G. A. (1810). Die Umgebungen von Muggensdorf. Ein Taschenbuch für Freunde der Natur und Alterumskunde. Erlangen: Palm, J. J.


Other references:

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