Mustela nigripes (Audubon & Bachman, 1851)

Black-footed ferret



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Rediscovered twice. First rediscovery was in 1955 (Scott, 1965).

Last record: 1975

Rediscovered in 1981

IUCN RedList status: Endangered



Canada, Mexico & USA


Biology & Ecology







A documentary called "Ferret Town":



Ali, Nadya. (2022). Understanding Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Driving Infertility in the Endangered Black-Footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes). PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago. [Abstract]


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Anonymous. (1981b). Ferret, feared extinct, is found in Wyoming. The New York Times, Saturday, November 7th.

Ayers, C.R., Belant, J.L., Eads, D.A., Jachowski, D.S. and Millspaugh, J.J. 2014. Investigation of factors affecting Black-footed Ferret litter size. Western North American Naturalist 74: 108-115.

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Clark, T. W. and Dorn, R. D. (1981). Rare and endangered vascular plants and vertebrates of Wyoming, 2nd ed. University of Minnesota. 66 pp.

Corey, Lauren. (2021). A Black-Footed Ferret and U.S. Law: Lessons Learned from the First Successful Clone of a Native U.S. Endangered Species. North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology 23(2): 338-381.

Eads, D.A. and Biggins, E.A. 2015. Plague bacterium as a transformer species in prairie dogs and the grasslands of western North America. Conservation Biology.

Eads, D.A., Jachowski, D.S., Biggins, D.E., Livieri, T.M., Matchett, M.R. and Millspaugh, J.J. 2013. Resource selection models are useful in predicting fine-scale distributions of Black-footed Ferrets in prairie dog colonies. Western North American Naturalist 72: 206-215.

Eads, D.A., Millspaugh, J.J., Biggins, D.E., Livieri, T.M. and Jachowski, D.S. 2011. Postbreeding resource selection by adult Black-footed Ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota. Journal of Mammalogy 92: 760-770.

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Fritts, Rachel A. (2020). Plague on the Prairie : the fight to save black-footed ferrets from the West's most insidious disease. Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Comparative Media Studies/Writing.

Garelle, D., Marinari, P. and Lynch C. 2014. Population analysis and breeding and transfer plan. Black-footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes). AZA Population Management Center, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

Genoways, Hugh G. (2021). Holocene Records of Nebraska Mammals. Zea Books. 89 pp.

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Kliver, Sergei et al. (2023). Chromosome-length genome assembly and karyotype of the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Journal of Heredity.

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Pastor, Adriana R. (2017). Investigating Enteric Coccidiosis in the Black-footed (Mustela nigripes) and Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Thesis, The University of Guelph. xvi + 175 pp.

Rocke, Tonie E. (2023). Plague and Distemper: Threats to Black-footed Ferret Conservation, pp. 217-?. In: Jessup, David A. and Radcliffe, Robin. W. (eds). Wildlife Disease and Health in Conservation. Baltimore, MA: Johns Hopkins University Press.

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Sandler, Ronald L. et al. (2021). An ethical analysis of cloning for genetic rescue: Case study of the black-footed ferret. Biological Conservation 257: 109118.

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Rediscovered twice. First rediscovery was in 1955 (Scott, 1965).