Homotherium latidens Owen, 1846

Saber-toothed cat



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: c.26,000 BCE





Biology & Ecology










Álvarez-Lao, D. J.: Middle Pleistocene large-mammal faunas from North Iberia: palaeobiogeographical and palaeoecological implications. Boreas. 10.1111/bor.12148. ISSN 0300-9483. [Abstract]

Antón, M. and Galobart, A. (1999). Neck function and predatory behavior in the scimitar toothed cat Homotherium latidens (Owen). J. Vert Paleontol 19: 771-784.

Antón, M. and Galobart, A. et al. (2005). Co-existence of scimitar-toothed cats, lions and hominins in the European Pleistocene. Implications of the post-cranial anatomy of Homotherium latidens (Owen) for comparative palaeoecology. Quaternary Science Reviews 24(10-11): 1287-1301. [Abstract]

Antón, Mauricio et al. (2009). Soft tissue reconstruction of Homotherium latidens (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae). Implications for the possibility of representations in Palaeolithic art. Geobios 42: 541-551.

Antón, Mauricio, Salesa, M. J., Galobart, A. and Tseng, Z. J. (2014). The Plio-Pleistocene scimitar-toothed felid genus Homotherium Fabrini, 1890 (Machairodontinae, Homotherini): diversity, palaeogeography and taxonomic implications. Quaternary Science Reviews 96: 259-268. [Abstract]

Antón, Mauricio et al. (2022). Concealed weapons: A revised reconstruction of the facial anatomy and life appearance of the sabre-toothed cat Homotherium latidens (Felidae, Machairodontinae). Quaternary Science Reviews 284: 107471.

Barnett, Ross et al. (2020). Genomic Adaptations and Evolutionary History of the Extinct Scimitar-Toothed Cat, Homotherium latidens. Current Biology 30(24): 5018-5025.e5. doi:

Diedrich, Cajus G. and McFarlane, Donald A. (In Press, 2017). Homotherium from Middle Pleistocene archaeological and carnivore den sites of Germany – Taxonomy, taphonomy and a revision of the Schöningen, West Runton and other saber-tooth cat sites. Quaternary International. [Abstract]

Domingo, Laura et al. (2017). New insights into the Middle Pleistocene paleoecology and paleoenvironment of the Northern Iberian Peninsula (Punta Lucero Quarry site, Biscay): A combined approach using mammalian stable isotope analysis and trophic resource availability modeling. Quaternary Science Reviews 169: 243-262. [Abstract]

George D. Koufos, Dimitris S. Kostopoulos, and Gildas Merceron. (2020). The saber-toothed cat Homotherium latidens (Owen, 1846) from the lower Pleistocene locality Dafnero, Western Macedonia, Greece. Geodiversitas 42(10): 139-149. [Abstract]

Janssens, Luc A. A. et al. (In Press, 2018). Shoulder osteoarthritis in a European saber-toothed cat (Homotherium latidens) from the Lower Palaeolithic site of Schöningen (Germany). International Journal of Paleopathology. [Abstract]

Koufos, George D. and Tamvakis, Aggelos. (2022). Revising the Villafranchian carnivoran fauna from Libakos (Macedonia, Greece) with some implications for its age. Historical Biology.

Kurtén B. 1968 Pleistocene mammals of Europe. London, AldineTransaction.

Marciszak, Adrian and Matyaszczyk, Lena. (2021). Południowa Cave - first mid-Middle Pleistocene site from Studety Mts (Silesia, SW Poland) and their biostratigraphical significance, p. 64. In: Ratajczak-Skrzatek U., Kovalchuk O., Stefaniak K. (eds.). Proceedings of INQUA SEQS 2021 Conference, Wrocław, Poland. University of Wrocław & Polish Geological Society. 119 pp.

McFarlane, D. A. and Lundberg, J. (2013). On the occurrence of the scimitar-tooth cat, Homotherium latidens (Carnivora; Felidae), at Kent’s Cavern, England. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 1629-1635.

Mol, Dick, Wilrie van Logchem, Kees van Hooijdonk and Remie Bakker. (2008). The Saber-toothed cat of the North Sea. Norg: DrukWare. 159 pp.

Mol D., Post K., Reumer J.W.F., van der Plicht J., de Vos J., van Geel B., van Reenen G., Pals J.P., Glimmerveen J. 2006 The Eurogeul—first report of the palaeontological, palynological and archaeological investigations of this part of the North Sea. Quaternary International 142–143(0), 178-185.

Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (2001). Human/carnivore interaction in the Middle Pleistocene of Latium (Central Italy): an open question, pp. 67-75. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Paijmans, Johanna L. A. et al. (In Press, 2017). Evolutionary History of Saber-Toothed Cats Based on Ancient Mitogenomics. Current Biology. DOI:

Reumer, J.W.F., Rook, L., Van Der Borg, K., Post, K., Mol, D., De Vos, J. (2003). LatePleistocene survival of the saber-toothed cat Homotherium in Northwestern Europe. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(1): 260-262.

Serangeli, Jordi, van Kolfschoten, Thijs, Starkovich, Britt M. and Verheijen, Ivo. (In Press, 2015). The European saber-toothed cat (Homotherium latidens) found in the “Spear Horizon” at Schöningen (Germany). Journal of Human Evolution. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.08.005 [Abstract]

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Verheijen, Ivo et al. (2022). The remains of the European sabre-toothed cat (Homotherium latidens) found in the spear horizon at Schöningen (Germany), pp. 3-17. In: Conard, Nicholas J., Hassmann, Henning, Hillgruber, Kurt Felix, Serangeli, Jordi and Terberger, Thomas (eds.). The Homotherium Finds from Schöningen 13II-4. Man and Big Cats of the Ice Age. Forschungen zur Urgeschichte aus dem Tagebau von Schöningen 4.


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