Crocuta ultima ultima Matsumoto, 1915



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Crocuta crocuta ultima Matsumoto, 1915


Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Matsumoto, H. (1915). On some fossil mammals from Sze-chuan, China. Science Rep. Tohoku Imperial Univ. Series 2 (Geol.) 3: 1-28.


Other references:

Dong, Wei and Zhang, Yingqi. (2022). Biochronologic sequences of the Pleistocene mammalian faunas in China and correlations with numeric dating. Quaternary Sciences 42(5): 1227-1246.

Duval, Mathieu, Fang, Fang, Suraprasit, Kantapon, Jaeger, Jean-Jacques, Benammi, Mouloud, Chaimanee, Yaowalak, Iglesias

Cibanal, Javier, and Grün, Rainer. (2019). Direct ESR dating of the Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage from Khok Sung locality, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeast Thailand. Palaeontologia Electronica 22.3.69 1-25.

Liang, Hua et al. (2022). New discovery of a late Middle Pleistocene mammalian fauna in Ganxian Cave, Southern China. Historical Biology.

Liu, J. (1999). Late Pleistocene mammal fossils from Miaofengshan, Beijing and discussion of Crocuta crocuta ultima. Longgupo Prehist. Cult. 1: 128-139.

Liu, J. et al. (2015). Mass mortality of a large population of the spotted hyenas (Crocuta ultima) at the Lingxiandong Cave, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province: a hyena communal den with its palaeoecological and taphonomical interpretation. Q. Sci. 35: 607-621.

Suraprasit, Kantapon et al. (2015). A complete skull of Crocuta crocuta ultima indicates a late Middle Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung (northeastern Thailand) vertebrate fauna. Quaternary International 374: 34-45. [Abstract]

Suraprasit, Kantapon, Jaeger, Jean-Jacques, Chaimanee, Yaowalak, Chavasseau, Olivier, Yamee, Chotima, Tian, Pannipa and Panha, Somsak. (2016). The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications. ZooKeys 613: 1-157.

Suraprasit, Kantapon et al. (In Press, 2020). Taxonomic reassessment of large mammals from the Pleistocene Homo-bearing site of Tham Wiman Nakin (Northeast Thailand): relevance for faunal patterns in mainland Southeast Asia. Quaternary International. [Abstract]

Tseng, Zhijie Jack and Chang, Chun-Hsiang. (2007). A Study of New Material of Crocuta crocuta ultima (Carnivora: Hyaenidae) from the Quaternary of Taiwan. Coll. and Res. 20: 9-19.

Turvey, Samuel T. et al. (2013). Holocene survival of Late Pleistocene megafauna in China: a critical review of the evidence. Quaternary Science Reviews 76: 156-166. [Abstract]


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