Notopala sublineata hanleyi Frauenfeld, 1864

River snail, Blind river snail



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Last record: 1980's

Rediscovered in 1993



The Murray and Murrumbidgee drainages, South Australia


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Frauenfeld, G. R. von. (1864). Verzeichniss der Namen der fossilen und lebenden Arten der Gattung Paludina Lam. nebst. jenen der nachststehenden und einrechung derselben in der verschieden neneren Gattungen. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 14: 561-672 (page 612).


Other references:

Clarke, Geoffrey M. and Spier-Ashcroft, Fiona. (2003). A Review of the Conservation Status of Selected Australian Non-Marine Invertebrates. Canberra: Environment Australia.

Cotton, B. C. (1935a). Recent Australian Viviparidae and a fossil species.  Records of the South Australian Museum. 5: 339-344.

Cotton, B. C. (1935b). The Australian viviparous river snails. Victorian Naturalist. 52: 96-99.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Mitchell, Polly K. (2005). Notopala sublineata: An Endangered Snail within the Murray-Darling Basin, NSW. Thesis. viii + 141 pp.

Ponder, W. F. (1998). News from Australia. Tentacle No. 8. July, 12-13. Newsletter of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Mollusc Specialist Group.

Sheldon, F. and Walker, K. F. (1993a). Pipelines as a refuge for freshwater snails. Regulated Rivers 8: 295-299. [Abstract]

Sheldon, F. and Walker, K. F. (1993b). Shell variation in Australian Notopala (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Viviparidae). Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 14: 59-71. [Abstract]

Sheldon, F. and Walker, K. (1997). Changes in biofilms induced by flow regulation could explain extinctions of aquatic snails in the lower River Murray, Australia. Hydrobiologia 347: 97-108. [Abstract]

Walker, Keith Forbes. (1996). The river snail Notopala hanleyi: An endangered pest. Xanthopus 14(1): 5-7.

Wishart, M. (1994). Studies on the biology of the endangered river snail Notopala hanleyi (Frauenfeld) (Prosobranchia : Viviparidae), and recommendations for conservation management. Unpublished Bachelor of Science Honours Thesis, University of Adelaide, Adelaide.


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