Pleurobema marshalli Frierson, 1927

Flat pigtoe, Marshall's mussel



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: 1980

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Alabama & Mississippi, USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Frierson, L.S. 1927. A Classified and Annotated Checklist of the North American Naiades. Baylor University Press: Waco, Texas. 111 pp.


Other references:

Bogan, A. E. (1996). Pleurobema marshalli. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 19 February 2013.

Graf, Daniel L. and Cummings, Kevin S. (2021). A ‘big data’ approach to global freshwater mussel diversity (Bivalvia: Unionoida), with an updated checklist of genera and species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 87(1): eyaa034.

Haag, W. R. (2004) Flat pigtoe Pleurobema marshalli. In Mirarchi R, Garner JT, Mettee MF, and O’Neil PE, eds, Alabama Wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled Aquatic Mollusks and Fishes, p. 30. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Haag, Wendell R. (2009). Past and future patterns of freshwater mussel extinctions in North America during the Holocene, pp. 107-128. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Jones, R.L., W.T. Slack, and P.D. Hartfield. 2005. The freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Mississippi. Southeastern Naturalist, 4(1): 77-92.

NatureServe. (2014). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: January 28, 2015).

Suckling, Kieran, Slack, Rhiwena and Nowicki, Brian. (2004). Extinct and the Endangered Species Act. Centre For Biological Diversity. 63 pp.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; endangered status fro Marshall’s Mussel (Pleurobema marshalli), Curtus’ Mussel (Pleurobema curtum), Judge Tait’s Mussel (Pleurobema taitianum), the Stirrup Shell (Quadrual stapes) and the Penitent Mussel (Epioblasma (=Dysnomia) penita). Federal Register 52(66): 11162-11168.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (1989). Recovery plan for five Tombigbee River mussels: Curtus’ pearly mussel (Pleurobema curtum), Marshall’s pearly mussel (Pleurobema marshalli), Judge Tait’s mussel (Pleurobema taitianum), penitent mussel (Epioblasma penita), and stirrup shell (Quadrulla stapes). USFWS Region 4, Atlanta, GA. 18 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2000. Recovery plan for the Mobile River basin aquatic ecosystem. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia. 128 pp.

Williams, James D., Bogan, Arthur E., Butler, Robert S., Cummings, Kevin S., Garner, Jeffrey T., Harris, John L., Johnson, Nathan A. and Watters, G. Thomas. (2017). A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20: 33-58.

Williams, J. D., A. E. Bogan, and J. T Garner. 2008. Freshwater mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi, & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pages.

Williams, J.D., S.L.H. Fuller, and R. Grace. 1992. Effects of impoundment on freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the main channel of the Black Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers in western Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, 13:1-10.


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