Fusconaia mitchelli (Simpson, 1895)

False spike



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Quincuncina mitchelli Simpson, 1895; Quadrula mitchelli Simpson, 1895


Conservation Status

Last record: 1975 (Suckling et al. 2004)

Rediscovered in ?

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Texas, USA


Biology & Ecology










Agrilife Today. 2011. Researchers discover freshwater mussel species thought to be extinct. Agrilife Today.

Campbell, D. C. and Lydeard, C. (2012). The genera of Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionidae: Ambleminae). American Malacological Bulletin, 30: 19-38.

Cordeiro, J. and Bogan, A. E. (2014). Fusconaia mitchelli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T19056A1954826. Downloaded on 24 July 2016.

Graf, Daniel L. and Cummings, Kevin S. (2021). A ‘big data’ approach to global freshwater mussel diversity (Bivalvia: Unionoida), with an updated checklist of genera and species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 87(1): eyaa034.

Haag, Wendell R. (2009). Past and future patterns of freshwater mussel extinctions in North America during the Holocene, pp. 107-128. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Howells, R.G. 2010. False spike (Quadrula mitchelli): Summary of selected biological and ecological data for Texas. Rare mussels: summary of selected biological and ecological data for Texas. BioStudies, Kerrville, Texas. Report on file with Save Our Springs Alliance, Austin, Texas.

Howells, R.G., Neck, R.W. and Murray, H.D. 1996. Freshwater molluscs of Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. [relevant reference?]

Mabe, J.A., and Kennedy, J.H. 2013. Discovery of a reproducing population of the critically endangered freshwater mussel, Quadrula mitchelli, in central Texas. Ellipsaria 15: 23-25.

Metcalf, A.L. 1982. Fossil unionacean bivalves from three tributaries of the Rio Grande. Pages 43-58 in J.R. Davis, editor. Proceedings of the symposium on recent benthological investigations in Texas and adjacent states. Texas Academy of Sciences, Austin.

Metcalf, A.L. 1982. Fossil unionacean bivalves from three tributaries of the Rio GRande. In: Davis, N.R. (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium in Recent Benthological Investigations in Texas and Adjacent States, pp. 278. Aquatic Science Section, Texas Academy of Science, Austin, Texas. [Listed under IUCN assessment, but incorrect citation?]

John M. Pfeiffer III, Nathan A. Johnson, Charles R. Randklev, Robert G. Howells and James D. Williams. (2016). Generic reclassification and species boundaries in the rediscovered freshwater mussel ‘Quadrulamitchelli (Simpson in Dall, 1896). Conservation Genetics 17(2): 279-292. [Abstract]

Randklev, Charles R. et al. (2012). False Spike, Quadrula mitchelli (Bivalvia: Unionidae), is Not Extinct: First Account of a Live Population in Over 30 Years. American Malacological Bulletin 30(2): 327-328. [Abstract]

Randklev, Charles R. et al. (2013). Distribution of Extant Populations of Quadrula mitchelli (false spike). Ellipsaria 15(3): 18-21.

Randklev, Charles R., E. T. Tsakiris, M. S. Johnson, J. Skorupski, L. E. Burlakova, J. Groce, and N. Wilkins. (2013). Is False Spike, Quadrula mitchelli (Bivalvia: Unionidae), extinct? First account of a very recently deceased individual in over thirty years. The Southwestern Naturalist 58(2): 247-249.

Simpson, C.T. 1914. A descriptive catalogue of the naiades, or pearly fresh-water mussels. Bryant Walker, Detroit, Michigan.

Smith, Chase H. et al. (2020). Resolving species boundaries in the critically imperiled freshwater mussel species, Fusconaia mitchelli (Bivalvia: Unionidae).  Zool Syst Evol Res. 59: 60-77.

Sowards, B., E.T. Tsakiris, M. Libson, and C.R. Randklev. (2013). Recent collection of a false spike (Quadrula mitchelli) in the San Saba River, Texas, with comments on habitat use. Walkerana 16(2): 63-67.

Suckling, Kieran, Slack, Rhiwena and Nowicki, Brian. (2004). Extinct and the Endangered Species Act. Centre For Biological Diversity. 63 pp.

Tsakiris, E. T. and Randklev, C. R. (2013). Relocation of freshwater mussels (Family: Unionidae) in the San Saba River in response to a drought. Final report submitted to USFWS.

Williams, James D., Bogan, Arthur E., Butler, Robert S., Cummings, Kevin S., Garner, Jeffrey T., Harris, John L., Johnson, Nathan A. and Watters, G. Thomas. (2017). A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20: 33-58.


<< Back to the Bivalvia (Mussels, Clams, Oysters etc.) database