Epioblasma othcaloogensis (I. Lea, 1857)

Southern acornshell, Southern acorn riffle shell



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Dysnomia othcaloogensis I. Lea, 1857


Conservation Status


Last record: 1974

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)



Alabama, Georgia & Tennessee, USA


Biology & Ecology










Cowie, Robert H., Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît, and Bouchet, Philippe. (2017). Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41.

Cummings, K. & Cordeiro, J. (2012). Epioblasma othcaloogensis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 18 July 2013.

Evans, R. D. 2001. Historical and contemporary distributions of aquatic mollusks in the Upper Connasauga River system of Georgia and Tennessee. M.S. Thesis, University of Tennessee Chattanooga, 277 p.

Gangloff, M. M. 2003. The status, physical habitat associations, and parasites of freshwater mussels in the upper Alabama River Drainage, Alabama. Ph.D. Dissertation, Auburn University.

Graf, Daniel L. and Cummings, Kevin S. (2021). A ‘big data’ approach to global freshwater mussel diversity (Bivalvia: Unionoida), with an updated checklist of genera and species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 87(1): eyaa034.

Haag, Wendell R. (2009). Past and future patterns of freshwater mussel extinctions in North America during the Holocene, pp. 107-128. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Hurd, J. C. 1974. Systematics and zoogeography of the unionacean mollusks of the Coosa RIver Drainage of Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee. Ph.D. Dissertation, Auburn University, 240 p.

Mirarchi, R.E., J.T. Garner, M.F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. xii + 255 pp.

NatureServe. (2014). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: January 29, 2015).

Parmalee, P.W. and A.E. Bogan. 1998. The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville, Tennessee. 328 pp.

Suckling, Kieran, Slack, Rhiwena and Nowicki, Brian. (2004). Extinct and the Endangered Species Act. Centre For Biological Diversity. 63 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Endangered and Threatened Widlife and plants; designation of critical habitat for three threatened mussels and eight endangered mussels in the Mobile River basin; final rule. Federal Register, 69(126): 40083-40171.

Williams, James D., Bogan, Arthur E., Butler, Robert S., Cummings, Kevin S., Garner, Jeffrey T., Harris, John L., Johnson, Nathan A. and Watters, G. Thomas. (2017). A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20: 33-58.

Williams, J.D., A.E. Bogan, and J.T. Garner. 2008. Freshwater Mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pp.

Williams, J.D. and M.H. Hughes. 1998. Freshwater mussels of selected reaches of the main channel rivers in the Coosa drainage of Georgia. U.S. Geological report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Alabama. 21 pp.


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