Epioblasma metastriata (Conrad, 1838)

Upland combshell



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Dysnomia metastriata Conrad, 1838; Dysnomia metastriata Conrad, 1840 [incorrect year]; Epioblasma metastriata (Conrad, 1840) [incorrect year]


Conservation Status


Last record: 1988 (NatureServe, 2014)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Alabama, Georgia & Tennessee, USA


Biology & Ecology










Bogan, A. E. (1996). Epioblasma metastriata. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. ( Downloaded on 23 April 2012.

Graf, Daniel L. and Cummings, Kevin S. (2021). A ‘big data’ approach to global freshwater mussel diversity (Bivalvia: Unionoida), with an updated checklist of genera and species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 87(1): eyaa034.

Haag, Wendell R. (2009). Past and future patterns of freshwater mussel extinctions in North America during the Holocene, pp. 107-128. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Hurd, J.C. 1974. Systematics and zoogeography of the Unionacean mollusks of the Coosa River drainage of Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Auburn University. Ph.D. dissertation. 240 pp., 10 tables, 6 fig., + 63 maps.

Mirarchi, R.E., J.T. Garner, M.F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. xii + 255 pp.

NatureServe. (2014). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: January 29, 2015).

Suckling, Kieran, Slack, Rhiwena and Nowicki, Brian. (2004). Extinct and the Endangered Species Act. Centre For Biological Diversity. 63 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Endangered status for eight freshwater mussels and threatened status for three freshwater mussels in the Mobil River drainage. Final rule. Federal Register, 58(60): 14330-14340.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1997. Draft Recovery Plan for the Mobile River basin aquatic ecosystem. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2000. Recovery plan for the Mobile River basin aquatic ecosystem. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia. 128 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Endangered and Threatened Widlife and plants; designation of critical habitat for three threatened mussels and eight endangered mussels in the Mobile River basin; final rule. Federal Register, 69(126): 40083-40171.

Williams, James D., Bogan, Arthur E., Butler, Robert S., Cummings, Kevin S., Garner, Jeffrey T., Harris, John L., Johnson, Nathan A. and Watters, G. Thomas. (2017). A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20: 33-58.

Williams, J.D. and M.H. Hughes. 1998. Freshwater mussels of selected reaches of the main channel rivers in the Coosa drainage of Georgia. U.S. Geological report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Alabama. 21 pp.


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