Epioblasma curtisii Frierson & Utterback, 1916

Curtis pearlymussel, Curtis' pearlymussel, Curtus's pearlymussel (used by Suckling et al. 2004:7)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Epioblasma florentina curtisii Frierson & Utterback, 1916; Epioblasma florentina curtisi Frierson & Utterback, 1916; Plagiola curtisi Frierson & Utterback, 1916


Elevated to species status by (Williams et al. 2017).


Conservation Status


Last record: 1990 (Suckling et al. 2004); 1994?



Arkansas & Missouri, USA


Biology & Ecology










Bruenderman, S.A. and A.C. Buchanan. 1998. Decline and extirpation of freshwater mussels in Little Black River, Missouri: There's still hope. TRIANNUAL UNIONID REPORT NO. 16. Available at:

Buchanan, A. 1988. Densities of the Curtis' Pearly Mussel and other naiades at selected sites in Little Black and Castor Rivers, Missouri. Unpublished report submitted to the Fish and Wildlife Service. 14 pp.

Buchanan, A.C. 1981. The distribution and habitat of the Curtis' pearly mussel, Epioblasma florentina curtisi(Utterback, 1915) in southeastern Missouri. The Bulletin of The American Malacological Union, Inc. 43 pp.

Buchanan, A.C. 1982. A study of Epioblasma florentina curtisi (Utterback 1915), the Curtis' Pearly Mussel, in the Upper Little Black River, Missouri. Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Columbia, Missouri.

Buchanan, A.C. 1983. An evaluation of the potential impacts of SCS structures B-9 and C-7 upon the Curtis' Pearly Mussel, Epioblasma florentina curtisi (Utterback 1915). Prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, North Central Region, Twin Cities, Minnesota. 30 pp.

Buchanan, A.C. 1983. Distribution, abundance, status, and habitat of the Curtis' Pearly Mussel Epioblasma florentina curtisi in southern Missouri. Endangered Species Project SE-3-1, Fish and Wildlife Service. 10 pp.

Buchanon, A.C. 1987. Aspects of the life history of the Curtis' pearly mussel, Epioblasma florentina curtisi (Utterback 1915). Missouri Department of Conservation, Missouri. 23 pp.

Graf, Daniel L. and Cummings, Kevin S. (2021). A ‘big data’ approach to global freshwater mussel diversity (Bivalvia: Unionoida), with an updated checklist of genera and species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 87(1): eyaa034.

Haag, Wendell R. (2009). Past and future patterns of freshwater mussel extinctions in North America during the Holocene, pp. 107-128. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Harris, J.L. and M.E. Gordon. 1987. Distribution and status of rare and endangered mussels (Mollusca: Margaritiferidae, Unionidae) in Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science, 41: 49-56.

Harris, J.L., P.J. Rust, A.C. Christian, W.R. Posey II, C.L. Davidson, and G.L. Harp. 1997. Revised status of rare and endangered Unionacea (Mollusca: Margaritiferidae, Unionidae) in Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science, 51: 66-89.

NatureServe. (2014). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: January 27, 2015).

Neves, R.J. and and S.A. Ahlstedt. 2001. The Status of Species and Recovery Programs for Endangered Freshwater Mussels in the Southern Appalachians. IN U.S. Geological Survey Appalachian Region Integrated Science Workshop Proceedings, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 22-26, 2001, Open-File Report 01-406.

Suckling, Kieran, Slack, Rhiwena and Nowicki, Brian. (2004). [url=]Extinct and the Endangered Species Act[/url]. Centre For Biological Diversity. 63 pp.

Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. (1998). Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

Utterback, W. I. (1917). Naiad geography of Missouri. American Midland Naturalist, 5(1): 26-30.

Williams, James D., Bogan, Arthur E., Butler, Robert S., Cummings, Kevin S., Garner, Jeffrey T., Harris, John L., Johnson, Nathan A. and Watters, G. Thomas. (2017). A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20: 33-58.


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