Epioblasma gubernaculum (Reeve, 1865)

Green blossom pearly mussel, Green-blossom, Green-blossom naiad, Green-blossom pearly mussel, Green riffle shell



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Dysnomia torulosa gubernaculum Reeve, 1865; Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculum (Reeve, 1865)


Elevated to species status by (Williams et al. 2017).


Conservation Status

Last record: 1984 (Suckling et al. 2004)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Tennessee & Virginia, USA


Biology & Ecology










Bogan, A. E. (Mollusc Specialist Group). (2000). Epioblasma torulosa ssp. gubernaculum. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. (https://ww.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 19 July 2013.

Bogan, Arthur E. and Parmalee, Paul W. (1983). Tennessee's Rare Wildlife. Volume II: The Mollusks. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.

Cummings, K. and Cordeiro, J. (2012). Epioblasma torulosa. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. (https://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 19 July 2013.

Graf, Daniel L. and Cummings, Kevin S. (2021). A ‘big data’ approach to global freshwater mussel diversity (Bivalvia: Unionoida), with an updated checklist of genera and species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 87(1): eyaa034.

Parmalee, P. W. and Bogan, A. E. (1998). The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville, Tennessee. 328 pp.

Suckling, Kieran, Slack, Rhiwena and Nowicki, Brian. (2004). Extinct and the Endangered Species Act. Centre For Biological Diversity. 63 pp.

Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. (1998). Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) (Ahlstedt, S.). (1982). Agency draft recovery plan for the green-blossom pearly mussel; Epioblasma (= Dysnomia) torulosa gubernaculum (Reeve,1865). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 4, Atlanta, Georgia. 46 pp.

USFWS. 1984. Recovery plan for the Green-Blossom Pearly Mussel; Epioblasma (Dysnomia) torulosa gubernaculum (Reeve, 1865). USFWS Region 4, Atlanta.

Williams, James D., Bogan, Arthur E., Butler, Robert S., Cummings, Kevin S., Garner, Jeffrey T., Harris, John L., Johnson, Nathan A. and Watters, G. Thomas. (2017). A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20: 33-58.




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