Alasmidonta robusta Clarke, 1981

Carolina elktoe



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Last record: 1800's

IUCN RedList status: Extinct

Only known from the original collection of five dried shells. However, the Carolina elktoe may have been rediscovered:

"Alasmidonta robusta Clarke, 1981, was considered extinct until North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) biologists recently identified a possible specimen in Poison Fork, Montgomery County (J. Alderman, personal communication)." (Bogan et al. 2008:8)



Long Creek, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, USA


Biology & Ecology




Only known from the original collection of five dried shells.






Original scientific description:

Clarke, A. H. (1981). The tribe Alasmidontini (Unionidae: Anodontinae), Part I. Pegias, Alasmidonta, and Arcidens. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. No. 326. iii + 101 pp.


Other references:

Bogan, A.E 2000. Alasmidonta robusta. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 06 July 2011.

Arthur E. Bogan, Yanyan Huang, Morgan Raley and Jay F. Levine. (2008). Final Report: Intraspecific phylogenetic relationships in the freshwater bivalve genus Alasmidonta (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Submitted To: North Carolina Department of Transportation.

Cowie, Robert H., Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît, and Bouchet, Philippe. (2017). Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41.

Graf, Daniel L. and Cummings, Kevin S. (2021). A ‘big data’ approach to global freshwater mussel diversity (Bivalvia: Unionoida), with an updated checklist of genera and species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 87(1): eyaa034.

Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît and Bouchet, Philippe. (2009). Not Knowing, Not Recording, Not Listing: Numerous Unnoticed Mollusk Extinctions. Conservation Biology 23(5): 1214-1221.

Williams, James D., Bogan, Arthur E., Butler, Robert S., Cummings, Kevin S., Garner, Jeffrey T., Harris, John L., Johnson, Nathan A. and Watters, G. Thomas. (2017). A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20: 33-58.


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