Stockoceros conklingi Stock, 1930

Conkling's pronghorn



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Tetrameryx conklingi Stock, 1930; Tetrameryx onusrosagris Roosevelt & Burden, 1934:4; Stockoceros onusrosagris (Roosevelt & Burden, 1934:4); Texoceros onusrosagris (Roosevelt & Burden, 1934:4)


Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene



Mexico & USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Stock, Chester. (1930). Quaternary antelope remains from a second cave deposit in the Organ Mountains, New Mexico. Los Angeles Museum, Science series, Paleontology 2: 1-18.


Other references:

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel, Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo et al. (2013). Taxonomy and notes on the paleobiology of the late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) antilocaprids (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Antilocapridae) from the state of Hidalgo, central Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 30(3): 601-613.

Colbert, E. H. 1950. The fossil vertebrates. Pp. 126-148 in The stratigraphy and archaeology of Ventana Cave. University of Arizona Press and University of New Mexico Press, Tucson and Albuquerque.

Colbert, E. H., and R. G. Chaffee. 1939. A study of Tetrameryx and associated fossils from Papago Spring Cave, Sonoita, Arizona. American Museum Novitates No. 1034:1-21.

Conkling, R. P. 1932. Conkling Cavern: The discoveries in the bone cave at Bishops Cap, New Mexico. West Texas Historical and Scientific Society Bulletin 44:39-41.

Czaplewski, N. J., J. I. Mead, C. J. Bell, W. D. Peachey, and T-L. Ku. 1999. Papago Springs Cave revisited, Part II: Vertebrate paleofauna. Occasional Papers of the Oklahoma Museum of Natural History 5:1–41.

Faunmap working group. 1994 FAUNMAP: a database documenting late Quaternary distributions of mammal species in the United States. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers 25(1-2), 1-690.

Ferrusquía-Villafranca I., Arroyo-Cabrales J., Martínez-Hernández E., Gama-Castro J., Ruiz-González J., Polaco O.J., Johnson E. 2010 Pleistocene mammals of Mexico: A critical review of regional chronofaunas, climate change response and biogeographic provinciality. Quaternary International 217(1–2), 53-104.

Frick, C. 1937. Horned ruminants of North America. American Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 69: 1-699.

Furlong, E. L. 1943. The Pleistocene antelope, Stockoceros conklingi, from San Josecito Cave, Mexico. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Contributions to Paleontology, Publication 551:1-8.

Harris, A. H. 1987. Reconstruction of Mid-Wisconsin environments in southern New Mexico. National Geographic Research 3:142-151.

Harris, A. H. 1989. The New Mexican late Wisconsin—east versus west. National Geographic Research 5:205-217.

Harris, Arthur H. (1993). Quaternary vertebrates of New Mexico, pp. 179-197. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in New Mexico, New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 2:i-vii, 1-338.

Harris, A. H. 2003. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Pendejo Cave. Pp. 36-65, in Pendejo Cave (R. S. MacNeish and J. G. Libby, eds.), University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 526 pp.

Kottkamp, Scott et al. (2022). Pleistocene vertebrates from Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. In: Morgan et al. (eds.). Late Cenozoic Vertebrate Paleontology: Tribute to Arthur H. Harris. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 88: 267-290.

Kurtén, B., and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America. Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 442 pp.

Logan, L. E. 1981. The mammalian fossils of Muskox Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico. Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress Speleology 1:159-160.

Lundelius, E. L., Jr. 1984. A late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Cueva Quebrada, Val Verde County, Texas. Pp. 456-481, in, Contributions in Quaternary vertebrate paleontology: A volume in memorial to John E. Guilday (H. H. Genoways and M. R. Dawson, eds.). Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication No. 8: i-v + 1-538.

Marriott, Katherine L. and Prothero, Donald R. (2022). Variability of the horns of pronghorns (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Antilocapridae): implications for pronghorn systematics. In: Lucas et al., 2022, Fossil Record 8. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 89: 289-293.

Mead, J. I., A. Baez, S. L. Swift, M. C. Carpenter, M. Hollenshead, N. J. Czaplewski, D. W. Steadman, J. Bright, and J. Arroyo-Cabrales. (2006). Tropical marsh and savanna of the late Pleistocene in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 51(2): 226-239.

Olson, Sara M. et al. (2022). Ontogenetic growth in the Pleistocene pronghorn Stockoceras from San Josecito Cave, Mexico. In: Lucas et al., 2022, Fossil Record 8. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 90: 321-324.

Roosevelt, Q. and Burden, J. W. (1934). A new species of antilocaprine, Tetrameryx onusrosagris, from a Pleistocene Cave deposit in southern Arizona. American Museum Novitates, no. 754:1-4.

Sayles, E. B. 1935. An archeological survey of Texas. Medallion Papers XVII. Gila Pueblo, Globe, Arizona.

Schultz, C. B., and E. B. Howard. 1935. The fauna of Burnet Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 87:273-298.

Skinner, M. F. 1942. The fauna of Papago Springs Cave, Arizona, with a study of Stockoceros. American Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 80:143-220.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Stock, Chester. (1932). A further study of the Quaternary antelopes of Shelter Cave, New Mexico. Los Angeles Museum, Science Series, Paleontology 3:1-45, 3 pls.

Stock, Chester. (1943). The Cave of San Josecito, Mexico: New Discoveries of the Vertebrate Life of the Ice Age. Engineering and Science Monthly [1943]: 10-14.

Tebedge, S. 1988. Paleontology and paleoecology of the Pleistocene mammalian fauna of Dark Canyon Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, xxiv + 277 pp.

White, Richard S. Jr. et al. (2022). Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) and Early Pliocene (Late Hemphillian) Antilocapridae from the Wright Gravel Pits, Nuences County Texas. In: Morgan et al. (eds.). Pliocene and Pleistocene Vertebrate Paleontology: Tribute to Arthur H. Harris. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 88: 187-212.


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