Sivatherium maurusium Pomel, 1893



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Libytherium maurusium Pomel, 1893


Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene?





Biology & Ecology










Berger, Lee R. et al. (2003). Preliminary results of excavations at the newly investigated Coopers D deposit, Gauteng, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 99: 276-278.

Colbert, E. N. (1936). Was the extinct giraffe (Sivatherium) known to the ancient Sumerians? American Anthropologist 38(4): 605-608.

Colbert, E. N. 1978. The enigma of Sivatherium. Plateau 51, 32-33.

Fortelius, M. et al. (2016). An ecometric analysis of the fossil mammal record of the Turkana Basin. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371: 20150232.

D. Geraads, V. Eisenmann, and G. Petter. 2004. The large mammal fauna of the Oldowan sites of Melka Kunture. in J. Chavaillon and M. Piperno, eds., Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia (Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria) 169-192.

Greenwell, J. R. 1994. Early history, late giraffe. BBC Wildlife 12 (12), 48.

Janis, C. 1987. Fossil ungulate mammals depicted on archaeological artifacts. Cryptozoology 6, 8-23.

Janis, C. 1990. Sivatherium defended (response to Reese). Cryptozoology 9, 111-115.

Lauer, Daniel A. et al. (2023). Disruption of trait-environment relationships in African megafauna occurred in the middle Pleistocene. Nature Communications 14: 4016.

Luyt, J., Lee-Thorp, J. A. and Avery, G. (2000). New light on Middle Pleistocene west coast environments from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 96: 399-403.

Mitchell, G & Skinner, J. D. 2003. On the origin, evolution and phylogeny of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 58, 51-73.

Reese, D. S. 1990. Paleocryptozoology and archaeology: a sivathere no longer (comment on Janis 1987 and Mayor 1989). Cryptozoology 9, 100-107.

Shuker, K. P. N. 1995. In Search of Prehistoric Survivors. Blandford, London.


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