Rusingoryx atopocranion Pickford & Thomas, 1984



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Megalotragus atopocranion Pickford & Thomas, 1984


Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene



Kenya (Rusinga Island & Mfangano Island)


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Pickford, M. and Thomas, H. (1984). An aberrant new bovid (Mammalia) in subrecent deposits from Rusinga island, Kenya. Proceedings Koninklijke Akademie des Wetenschappen. B. 87(4): 441-452.


Other references:

Anderson, Sophia Christina. (2022). Funny Bones: Ecomorphology of the Bovid Distal Humerus and its Paleontological Implications. MSc thesis, Durham University.

Faith, J. Tyler. (2014). Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa. Earth-Science Reviews 128: 105-121.

J. Tyler Faith, Jonah N. Choiniere, Christian A. Tryon, Daniel J. Peppe, and David L. Fox. (2011). Taxonomic status and paleoecology of Rusingoryx atopocranion (Mammalia, Artiodactyla), an extinct Pleistocene bovid from Rusinga Island, Kenya. Quaternary Research 75(3): 697-707.

Faurby, S. et al. (2018). PHYLACINE 1.2: The phylogenetic atlas of mammal macroecology. Ecology 99, 2626.

Harris, J. M. (1991). Family Bovidae. In: Harris, J.M. (Ed.), Koobi Fora Research Project. The Fossil Ungulates: Geology, Fossil Artiodactyls, and Palaeoenvironments, 3. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 139-320.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Jenkins, Kirsten E. et al. (2017). Evaluating the potential for tactical hunting in the Middle Stone Age: Insights from a bonebed of the extinct bovid, Rusingoryx atopocranion. Journal of Human Evolution 108: 72-91. [Abstract]

Lauer, Daniel A. et al. (2023). Disruption of trait-environment relationships in African megafauna occurred in the middle Pleistocene. Nature Communications 14: 4016.

O'Brien, Haley D. et al. (2016). Unexpected Convergent Evolution of Nasal Domes between Pleistocene Bovids and Cretaceous Hadrosaur Dinosaurs. Current Biology 26(4): 556. [Abstract]

O'Brien, Kaedan et al. (2023). Migratory behavior in the enigmatic Late Pleistocene bovid Rusingoryx atopocranion. Frontiers in Environmental Archaeology. doi:10.3389/fearc.2023.1237714

Tryon, C.A., Faith, J.T., Peppe, D.J., Fox, D.L., McNulty, K.P., Jenkins, K., Dunsworth, H., Harcourt-Smith, W. (2010). The Pleistocene archaeology and environments of the Wasiriya Beds, Rusinga Island, Kenya. J. Hum. Evol. 59: 657-671.

Tryon, C.A., Peppe, D.J., Faith, J.T., Van Plantinga, A., Nightengale, S., Ogondo, J. and Fox, David L. (2012). Late Pleistocene artefacts and fauna from Rusinga and Mfangano islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya. Azania Archaeol. Res. Afr. 47(1): 14-38.

Vrba, E. S. (1997). New fossils of Alcelaphini and Caprinae (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Awash, Ethiopia, and phylogenetic analysis of Alcelaphini. Paleontol. Afr. 34: 127-198.


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