Rucervus eldii eldii M'Clelland, 1842:417

Eld's deer, Sangai, Manipur's brow-antlered deer, Brow-antlered deer, Manipur brown-antlered deer



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Cervus eldii eldii M'Clelland, 1842:417; Cervus eldii M'Clelland, 1842:417; Panolia eldii (M'Clelland, 1842:417)


May be valid as Cervus eldii eldii (Ghazi et al., 2021)


Conservation Status

Last record: 1951

Rediscovered in 1953? 1971? 1975?

IUCN RedList status: Endangered



Manipur, India


Biology & Ecology










Anand, Vicky, Oinam, Bakimchandra and Singh, Irom Hamilton. (2021). Predicting the current and future potential spatial distribution of endangered Rucervus eldii eldii (Sangai) using MaxEnt model. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 193: 147. [Abstract]

Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

Balakrishnan, C. N., Monfort, S. L., Gaur, A., Singh, L. and Sorenson, M. D. (2003). Phylogeography and conservation genetics of Eld's deer (Cervus eldi). Molecular Ecology 12: 1-10.

Desai, J. H. and Malhotra, A. K. (1978). The Manipur brow-antlered deer (Cervus e. eldi), its status and breeding in captivity. Int. Zoo Year Book, 1978.

Ghazi, Mirza Ghazanfarullah et al. (2021). Population genetics and evolutionary history of the endangered Eld’s deer (Rucervus eldii) with implications for planning species recovery. Scientific Reports 11: 2564.

Gray, T.N.E., Brook, S.M., McShea, W.J., Mahood, S., Ranjitsingh, M.K., Miyunt, A., Hussain, S.A. & Timmins, R. 2015. Rucervus eldii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T4265A22166803. Downloaded on 17 January 2016.

Hu, Pengfei et al. (2019). Genome-wide study on genetic diversity and phylogeny of five species in the genus Cervus. BMC Genomics 201920: 384.

Lydekker, Richard. (1915). Catalogue of the Ungulate Mammals in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. IV. Artiodactyla. London: British Museum. [p. 102]

Parmar, WajeedaTabasumDrashti R., Jayaraman, Archana, Mitra, Siuli, Sreenivas, Aris, Kunteepuram, Vaishnavi and Gaur, Ajay. (2017). The complete mitochondrial genome of Eld's deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) and its phylogenetic implications. Gene Reports 9: 98-107. [Abstract]

Ranjit Singh MK. Keibul Lamjao Sanctuary and the brow antlered deer-1972 with notes on a visit in 1975. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 1975.

Scheffers, Brett R., Yong, Ding Li, Harris, J. Berton C., Giam, Xingli and Sodhi, Navjot S. (2011). The world’s rediscovered species: back from the brink? PLoS ONE 6(7): e22531. [Supporting Information (Table S1)]

Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.

Shamungou, K. H. (1990). Habitat devastation threatens Manipur brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldii eldii McClelland, 1842). Deer 8(2): 99-101.

Singh, Manisha and Khare, Neelam. (2018). Distribution, status and conservation of Sangai deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) in Manipur, India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 6(5): 732-737.

Singsit S. The dancing deer of Manipur. Newsletter, Wildlife Institute of India, 2003.

Talukdar, N.R., Choudhury, P., Barbhuiya, R. A., Ahmad, F., Daolagupu, D. and Baishya, J. B. (2021). Mammals of northeastern India: an updated checklist. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(4): 18059-18098. doi:

Wimberly, Alexa N. (2023). Predicting body mass in Ruminantia using postcranial measurements. Journal of Morphology 284(10): e21636. [Supporting Information] ["The endangered species of brow-antlered deer 'Sangai' is in dire need of a second home as a epidemic or a natural calamity at its current and only habitat at Keibul Lamjao National Park (KLNP) in Loktak Lake could spell doom for the entire race."]


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