Porcula salvania Hodgson, 1847

Pygmy hog



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Sus salvanius (Hodgson, 1847)


Conservation Status

Last record: 1965

Rediscovered in 1971 (Tessier-Yandell, 1971a)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Bhutan, India and Nepal


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Hodgson, B. (1847). On a new form of the hog kind or Suidae. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 16: 423-428.


Other references:

Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

Anonymous. (1971). Pygmy hog and hispid hare. Oryx, J. Fauna Preserv. Sot., XI (2-3): 103-107.

Fisher, Diana O. (2011). Trajectories from extinction: where are missing mammals rediscovered? Global Ecology & Biogeography 20: 415-425. [Appendix S1]

Funk, S. M., Verma, S. K., Larson, G., Prasad, K., Singh, L., Narayan, G. and Fa, J. E. (2007). The pygmy hog is a unique genus: 19th century taxonomists got it right first time round. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45(2): 427-436.

Griffith, L. D. (1978). The search for the pygmy hog in Nepal. Nature Ann., Nepal Nature Conserv. Sot. 11: 41-45.

Hance, Jeremy. (2009). Successful reintroduction of world’s smallest hog., 13 May, available at:

Jerdon, T. C. (1874). The mammals of India: a natural history of all the animals known to inhabit continental India. , J. Wheldon.

Kakati, Ranjit and Borah, Keshob Jyoti. (2023). Status of Threatened Biodiversity in Behali Reserved Forest, Assam, India, pp. 45-53. In: Conference Proceedings: ICEDAHHW-2021.

Liu, Langqing et al. (2019). Genomic analysis on pygmy hog reveals extensive interbreeding during wild boar expansion. Nature Communications 10: 1992.

Liu, Langqing; Bosse, M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Lee, Y.L.; Irving-Pease, Evan K.; Narayan, Goutam; Groenen, M.; Madsen, O. (2019). The little Pygmy hog (Porcula salvania), a big piece in resolving the fascinating history of the complex speciation of the Suidae. ISAG 2019 Abstracts Book, p. 24-25. 37th International Society for Animal Genetics Conference (ISAG), Lleida, 2019-07-07/2019-07-12. [Abstract]

Lydekker, Richard. (1900). The Great & Small Game of India, Burma & Tibet. London: Rowland Ward. [pp. 266-267]

Lydekker, Richard. (1915). Catalogue of the Ungulate Mammals in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. IV. Artiodactyla. London: British Museum. [p. 343]

Mallinson, J. J. C. (1971). The pygmy hog, Sus salvanius (Hodgson) in northern Assam. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 68(2): 424-433.

Mallinson, J. J. C. (1977). Breeding of the pygmy hog, Sus salvanius (Hodgson) in northern Assam. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Sot., 74 (2): 288-289.

Mary, P., Sinha, R. R., Kumar, A., Medhi, M., Narayan, G. & Deka, P. (2013) Habitat

Characteristics of the Critically Endangered Pigmy Hog (Porcula salvania) of Manas National Park and Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park in Assam, Northeast India. In: Anonymous Knowledge Systems of Societies for Adaptation and Mitigation of Impacts of Climate Change. , Springer. pp. 405-421.

Narayan, G. (2006). Pygmy Hog Conservation Programme - an update. IUCN/SSC Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group (PPHSG) Newsletter 6(2): 14-15.

Narayan, G. and Deka, P. J. (2002). Pygmy Hog Conservation Programme in Assam, India. IUCN/SSC Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group (PPHSG) Newsletter 2(1): 5-7.

Narayan, G., Deka, P. & Oliver, W. (2008). Porcula salvania. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. ( Downloaded on 27 January 2014.

Narayan, G. and Oliver, W. L. R. (In press). Pygmy hog. In: A. J. T. Johnsingh (ed.), The Mammals of South Asia, Permanent Black, Ranikhet, Uttaranchal. [should have been published by now]

Narayan, G., Oliver, W. & Deka, P. (2008). First captive bred pygmy hogs (Porcula salvania) reintroduced to Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India. Suiform Soundings. 8(1): 16-26.

Oliver, William L. R. (1979a). The doubtful future of the pygmy hog and the hispid hare: pygmy hog survey report, part I. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Sot., 75 (2): 341-372.

Oliver, William L. R. (1979b). Observations of the biology of the pygmy hog (with a footnote on the hispid hare): pygmy hog survey report, part II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Sot. 76(2): 115-142. 

Oliver, William L. R. (1980). The Pigmy Hog: the Biology and Conservation of the Pigmy Hog, Sus (Porcula) salvanius, and the Hispid Hare, Caprolagus hispidus. Special Scientific Report No 1. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. 80 pp.

Oliver, William L. R. (1981). Pygmy hog and hispid hare: further observations of the continuing decline (or, a lament for Barnadi, and a good cause for skepticism). Dodo, J. Jersey Wildl. Preserv. Trust, 18: 10-20. 

Oliver, William L. R. (1984). The distribution and status of the hispid hare, Caprolagus hispidus: the summarized findings of the 1984 pygmy hog/hispid hare field survey in northern Bangladesh, southern Nepal and northern India. Dodo, J. Jersey Wildl. Preserv. Trust, 21: 6-32.

Oliver, William L. R. (1985). The distribution and status of the hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus), with some additional notes on the pygmy hog (Sus salvanius)-a report on the 1984 field survey. (Unpubl.) rep. to Wildlife Preservation Trust: 94 pp. 

Oliver, William L. R. (1989a). The pigmy hog and hispid hare: case histories of conservation problems and related considerations in north-eastern India. In: B. Allchin, E. R. Allchin and B. K. Thapar (eds), The Conservation of the Indian Heritage, pp. 67-82. Cosmo Press, New Delhi, India.

Oliver, William L. R. (1989b). The Pigmy Hog: The Biology and Conservation of the Pigmy Hog, Sus (Porcula) salvanius and the Hispid Hare, Caprolagus hispidus. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust.

Oliver, William L. R. (1991a). Monograph on the pygmy hog, Sus salvanius. In: H. Fradrich and H.-G. Klos (eds.), Proc. of the Pigs and Peccaries Workshop at Zoo Berlin, 12- 15th July 1990: Bongo, Berlin: 21-38.

Oliver, William L. R. (1991b). A review of the status of sanctuaries for the pigmy hog Sus salvanius: a report on a visit to N.W. Assam in February, 1990. Dodo 27: 62-70.

Oliver, William L. R. and Deb Roy, Sanjoy. (1993). The Pigmy Hog (Sus salvanius) - Chapter 5.3, pp. 121-129. IN: IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group & IUCN/SSC Hippo Specialist Group. Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos Status Survey and Action Plan.

Pandya, N. P. (1990). Report on an initial survey of pygmy hog, Sus salvanius, and hispid hare, Caprolagus hispidus, and their habitat in Arunachal Pradesh, India during April 1990. (Unpubl.): 25 pp.

Pradhan, Janani. (2015). Habitat suitability modelling to guide long-term conservation strategies for the pygmy hog in Assam. Imperial College, London. Unpublished thesis.

Ranjitsinh, M. K. (1972). A note on the future conservation plan for the pygmy hog (Sus salvanius) and hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus; Pearson, 1839). (Unpubl.) D.O. No. 682/DSF 1023/72, Govt. of India. 

Scheffers, Brett R., Yong, Ding Li, Harris, J. Berton C., Giam, Xingli and Sodhi, Navjot S. (2011). The world’s rediscovered species: back from the brink? PLoS ONE 6(7): e22531. [Supporting Information (Table S1)]

Schmidt, C. R., Mallinson J. J. C., and Weilenmann, P. (1978). International cooperation for captive breeding of the pygmy hog, Sus salvanius. Int. Zoo News, 2513(150): 28-31.

Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.

Tessier-Yandell, J. (1971a). Rediscovery of the Pygmy Hog. Animals 13(20): 956-958.

Tessier-Yandell, J. (1971b). The pygmy hog, Sus salvanius. Cheetal 14 (3): 23-28.

Talukdar, N.R., Choudhury, P., Barbhuiya, R. A., Ahmad, F., Daolagupu, D. and Baishya, J. B. (2021). Mammals of northeastern India: an updated checklist. Journal of Threatened Taxa 13(4): 18059-18098. doi:

de Visser, Manon et al. (2021). Pygmy hogs. Current Biology 31(8): R366-R368. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.038.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (1996). Haematopinus oliveri. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 25 May 2013.


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