Phacochoerus aethiopicus aethiopicus Pallas, 1766:16

Cape warthog



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: angalla (Boddaert, 1785); edentatus I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1828; pallasii Van der Hoeven, 1839; typicus (A. Smith, 1834)


Conservation Status


Last record: c. 1865 (1871?)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



South Africa


Biology & Ecology




MCZ 5009 (skeleton; sex unspecified)

MCZ 41997 (skull; sex unspecified)






Original scientific description:

Pallas, Peter Simon. (1766). Miscellanea zoologica quibus novae imprimis etque obscurae animalium species describuntur et observationibus iconibusque illustrantur. Hague Comitum: Petrus van Cleef.


Other references:

Cooke, H. B. S. (1939). On a collection of fossil mammalian remains from the vaal river gravels at Pniel. South African Journal of Science 36(12): 412-416.

d'Huart, J. P., Butynski, T. M. and De Jong, Y. (2008). Phacochoerus aethiopicus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 03 July 2011.

d'Huart, J. P. and Grubb, Peter. (2001). Distribution of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and the desert warthog ([i]Phacochoerus aethiopicus[/i]) in the Horn of Africa. African Journal of Ecology 39: 156-169. [relevant citation?]

Ewer, R. F. (1957). A collection of Phacochoerus aethiopicus teeth from the Kalkbank Middle Stone Age site, central Transvaal. Palaeontologia Africana 5: 5-20.

Gippoliti, Spartaco, Cotterill, Fenton P. D., Zinner, Dietmar and Groves, Colin P. (2017). Impacts of taxonomic inertia for the conservation of African ungulate diversity:an overview. Biological Reviews. doi: 10.1111/brv.12335

Grubb, Peter. (1993). The Afrotropical suids: Phacochoerus, Hylochoerus and Potamochoerus. Taxonomy and Classification, Chapter 4.1, in Action plan for the Suiformes (W. L. R. Oliver, ed.). I.U.C.N., Gland, Switzerland. 202 pp. [relevant citation?]

Grub, Peter. (1999). Types and type localities of ungulates named from southern Africa. Koedoe 42(2): 13-45.

Grubb, P. and d'Huart, J.P. (2010). Rediscovery of the Cape Warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus: a Review. Journal of East African Natural History 99(2): 77-102. [Abstract]

Plug, Ina. (2004). Resource exploitation: animal use during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal. South African Journal of Science 100(3-4): 151-158. [refers to this subspecies?]

Louwrens C. Hoffman, Monlee Swanepoel and Alison J. Leslie. (2017). African game meat and the safety pertaining to free-ranging wildlife: example of a wild suid in South Africa, pp. 17-50. In: P. Paulsen, A. Bauer and F.J.M. Smulders (eds.). Game Meat Hygiene: Food Safety and Security. Wageningen Academic Publishers. 308 pp. [Abstract]

Lydekker, Richard. (1915). Catalogue of the Ungulate Mammals in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume 4. London: Trustees of the British Museum.

Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. 1955. Proposed use of the Plenary Powers to validate the generic name "Phacochoerus" as from Cuvier (F.), 1826, as the generic name for the wart hog. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 2: 191-195.

Plug, Ina and Badenhorst, Shaw. (2001). The Distribution of Macrornammals in Southern Africa Over the Past 30 000 Years: as reflected in animal remains from archaeological sites. Transvaal Museum Monographs No. 12. Pretoria: Transvaal Museum. [title pagefront matter, pp. 1-13, pp. 14-21, pp. 22-30 pp. 31-88, pp. 89-112, pp. 113-206, pp. 207-228references]

Randi, E., J.P. d'Huart, V. Lucchini and R. Aman (2002). Evidence of two genetically deeply divergent species of warthog Phacochoerus africanus and P. aethiopicus (Artiodactyla: Suiformes) in East Africa. Mammalian Biology 67(2): 91-96.

Rossouw, Lloyd. (2006). Florisian mammal fossils from erosional gullies along the Modder River at Mitasrust farm, central Free State,South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Blomfontein 22(6): 145-161.

Sclater, P. L. (1850). Report from the Secretary on the purchase of two young Phacochoerus aethiopicus from Port Natal. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1850: 78.

Scott, G. R. (1981). Rinderpest, pp. 18-30. In: Davis, J. W., Karstad, L. H. and Trainer, D. O. Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals. Ames: Iowa State University Press.

Shapiro, M. M. J. (1943). Fossil mammalian remains from rankies Kroonsted district, O.F.S. South African Journal of Science 39(1): 176-181.

Skead, C.J. (2011). Cape Warthog. In A.F. Boshoff, G.I.H. Kerley & P.H. Lloyd (eds) , Historical Incidence of the larger land Mammals in the Broader Western and Northern Cape, Second Edition . Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. Port Elizabeth. In press.

Taru, Phillip. (2016). Fossil hair in brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea) coprolites from Middle Pleistocene deposits at Gladysvale Cave, South Africa. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. DOI: 10.1007/s12549-015-0227-7 [Abstract]

Vosmaer, A. (1766). Natuurlyke historie van het Africaansche Breedsnuitig Varken, of Bosch-Zwyn. P. Meijer, Amsterdam, 15 pp. [relevant citation?]

Wells, L. H. (1964). The Vaal River 'Younger Gravels' faunal assemblage: A revised list. South African Journal of Science 60(3): 91-93.


<< Back to the Cetartiodactyla (Even-toed Ungulates) database