Oryx leucoryx (Pallas, 1777)

Arabian oryx, White oryx



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Reintroduced to the wild (Smith et al., 2023)

Last wild record: 1972 (Smith et al., 2023)

IUCN RedList status: Vulnerable



Middle East


Anatomy & Morphology

Body mass: 97.7kg (Wimberly, 2023:SI:10)


Biology & Ecology




USNM 581996 (Wimberly, 2023:SI:7)

USNM 588339 (Wimberly, 2023:SI:7)






Al Rawahi, Q., Mijangos, J. L., Khatkar, M. S., Al Abri, M. A., AlJahdhami, M. H., Kaden, J., Senn, H., Brittain, K. and Gongora, J. (2022). Rescued back from extinction in the wild: past, present and future of the genetics of the Arabian oryx in Oman. R. Soc. Open Sci. 9: 210558.

Ammari, Aiman A. et al. (2023). Interspecific Nuclear Transfer Blastocysts Reconstructed from Arabian Oryx Somatic Cells and Domestic Cow Ooplasm. Vet. Sci. 10(1): 17.

Bauman, Karen L. et al. (2023). Behavior of addax (Addax nasomaculatus) and Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) mothers and calves during the calves’ first day of life. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 266: 106033.

Boland, Christopher R. J. and Burwell, Bruce O. (2021). Ranking and mapping Saudi Arabia’s high conservation priority terrestrial vertebrates. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology 10(2): 197-210.

Curtiss, Jeffrey B., Lewis, Michelle and Mitchell, Emily P. (2021). Pemphigus foliaceus in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx). Veterinary Pathology 58(6): 1142-1146.

Eljarah, Abdulhakeem and Ismail, Zuhair Bani. (2023). Hematology and serum biochemistry variables in apparently normal Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx). Veterinary World 16(6): 1369-1372.

Elmeer, K., Matatt, I., Al-Malki, A. and Alam, M.S. (2019). Genetic diversity and relatedness in Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) revealed by SSR markers. QSci Connect, 2019(1): 1-12.

Ferrell, S.T., Radcliffe, R.W., Marsh, R., Thurman, C.B., Cartwright, C.M., De Maar, T.J.W., Blumer, E.S., Spevak, E. and Osofsky, S.A. (2001). Comparisons among selected neonatal biomedical parameters of four species of semi free-ranging hippotragini: Addax (Addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger). Zoo Biol. 20(1): 47-54.

Gilad, O., Grant, W. E. and Saltz, D. (2008). Simulated dynamics of Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the Israeli Negev: Effects of migration corridors and post-reintroduction changes in natality on population viability. Ecological Modelling 210(1-2): 169.

Gross, Michael. (2022). Desert revival. Current Biology 32(9): R399-R401.

Hetem, R. S., Strauss, W. M., Fick, L. G., Maloney, S. K., Meyer, L. C. R., Shobrak, M., Fuller, A., and Mitchell, D. Does size matter? Comparison of body temperature and activity of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx ) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica) in the Saudi desert. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 182, 3 (2012), 437–449.

Hussein, M.F., Al-jumaah, R.S., Homeida, A., Alhaidary, A.A., Alshaikh, M.A., Garelnabi, A.R., Mohamed, A.S.D. and Omer, A.A. (2010) Hemostatic profile, platelets, and blood constituents of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx). Comp. Clin Pathol., 19(6): 585-591.

Islam, M.Z., Ismail, K., Boug, A. (2010). Catastrophic die-off of globally threatened Arabian Oryx and Sand Gazelle in the fenced protected area of arid central Saudi Arabia. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2: 677-684.

Islam, M.Z., Ismail, K., Boug, A. (2011). Restoration of the endangered Arabian Oryx Pallas 1766 in Saudi Arabia: lessons learned from twenty years of reintroductions in arid fenced and unfenced areas. Zoology in the Middle East Supplementum 3: 125-140.

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Jones, K. E., Bielby, J., Cardillo, M., Fritz, S. A., O’Dell, J., Orme, C. D. L., Safi, K., Sechrest, W., Boakes, E. H., Carbone, C., et al. Pantheria: a species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals: Ecological archives e090-184. Ecology 90, 9 (2009), 2648.

Landau, S.Y., Isler, I., Dvash, L., Shalmon, B., Arnon, A. and Saltz D. (2021) Estimating the suitability for the reintroduced Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx, Pallas 1777) of two desert environments by NIRS-aided fecal chemistry. Remote Sens., 13: 1876.

Landau, Serge Yan et al. (2022). The value of faecal N in monitoring dietary quality in desert ungulates: The Arabian oryx as a model. Journal of Arid Environments 201: 104750.

Mallon, D., Hilton-Taylor, C., Allen, D. and Harding, K. (2019). UAE National Red List of Mammals: Marine and Terrestrial. A report to the Ministry of Climate Change and Environment, United Arab Emirates. IUCN Global Species Programme. 74 pp.

Mănduță, Cătălina and Petrovici, Milca. (2023). The importance of zoological gardens in the conservation of biodiversity. Annals of West University of Timişoara, ser. Biology 26(1): 23-42.

Ostrowski, Stéphane et al. (2002). Isolation of Brucella melitensis from an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx). Veterinary Record 150: 186-188.

Ostrowski, Stéphane, Williams, Joseph B., Mésochina, Pascal and Sauerwein, Helga. (2005). Physiological acclimation of a desert antelope, Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), to long-term food and water restriction. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 176(3): 191-201.

Saltz, D. (1998). A long-term systematic approach to planning reintroductions: the Persian fallow deer and the Arabian oryx in Israel. Animal Conservation 1(4): 245.

Smith, Donal et al. (2023). Extinct in the wild: The precarious state of Earth’s most threatened group of species. Science 379(6634): eadd2889.

Spalton, J. A. (1999). The food supply of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the desert of Oman. Journal of Zoology 248(4): 433-441.

Spalton, J. A., Lawrence, M. W. and Brend, S. A. (1999). Arabian oryx reintroduction in Oman: successes and setbacks. Oryx 33: 168-175.

Vassart, M. and Greth, A. (1991) Hematological and serum chemistry values for Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx). J. Wildl. Dis., 27(3): 506-508.

Williams, Joseph B., Ostrowski, Stéphane, Bedin, Eric and Ismail, Khairi. (2001). Seasonal variation in energy expenditure, water flux and food consumption of Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx. Journal of Experimental Biology 204(13): 2301-2311.

Wimberly, Alexa N. (2023). Predicting body mass in Ruminantia using postcranial measurements. Journal of Morphology 284(10): e21636. [Supporting Information]

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Yahya, A.E., Othman, Y.A., Sawalhah, M.N. and Holechek, J.L. (2022) The potential of remotely-sensed data to identify suitable sites for the reintroduction of Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx). Zool. Middle East, 68(2): 109-120.


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