Navahoceros fricki Schultz & Howard, 1935

Frick's mountain deer



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Rangifer fricki Schultz & Howard, 1935


Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene?





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Schultz, C. B., and E. B. Howard. 1935. The fauna of Burnet Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 87:273-298.


Other references:

Adair, M. J. (ed.). (1989). Archaeological investigations at the North Cove Site, Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska. Kaw Valley Engineering and Development, Inc., Junction City, KS, vi + 1-106.

Adair, M. J., and Brown, K. L. (eds.). (1987). Prehistoric and historic cultural resources of selected sites at Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska: test excavations and determination of significance for 28 sites. Kaw Valley Engineering and Development, Inc., Junction City, KS, xiii + 594 pp.

Faunmap working group. 1994 FAUNMAP: a database documenting late Quaternary distributions of mammal species in the United States. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers 25(1-2), 1-690.

Ferrusquía-Villafranca I., Arroyo-Cabrales J., Martínez-Hernández E., Gama-Castro J., Ruiz-González J., Polaco O.J., Johnson E. 2010 Pleistocene mammals of Mexico: A critical review of regional chronofaunas, climate change response and biogeographic provinciality. Quaternary International 217(1–2), 53-104.

Harris, Arthur H. (1993). Quaternary vertebrates of New Mexico, pp. 179-197. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in New Mexico, New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 2:i-vii, 1-338.

Hay, O. P. 1927. The Pleistocene of the western region of North America and its vertebrated animals. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication no. 322B, 346 pp + pls. I-XII.

Hockett, B., Dillingham, E., 2004. Paleontological Investigations at Mineral Hill Cave. Contributions to the Study of Cultural Resources Technical Report 18. U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, Reno.

Kottkamp, Scott et al. (2022). Pleistocene vertebrates from Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. In: Morgan et al. (eds.). Late Cenozoic Vertebrate Paleontology: Tribute to Arthur H. Harris. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 88: 267-290.

Kurtén, Björn. (1975). A new Pleistocene genus of American mountain deer. Journal of Mammalogy 56(2): 507-508.

Kurtén, B., and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America. Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 442 pp.

Lundelius, E. L., Jr. 1984. A late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Cueva Quebrada, Val Verde County, Texas. Pp. 456-481, in, Contributions in Quaternary vertebrate paleontology: A volume in memorial to John E. Guilday (H. H. Genoways and M. R. Dawson, eds.). Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication No. 8: i-v + 1-538.

Milligan, Mark and McDonald, H. Gregory. (2017). Shorelines and vertebrate fauna of Pleistocene Lake Bonneville, Utah, Idaho, and Nevada. Geology of the Intermountain West 4: 181-214.

Mones A. 1991 Monografía de la familia Hydrochoeridae (Mammalia: Rodentia). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 134.

Morejohn, G. V. and Dailey, C. D. (2004). The identity and postcranial osteology of Odocoileus lucasi (Hay) 1927. Sierra Coll. Nat. Hist. Mus. Bull. 1: 1-54.

Morgan, G. S., and S. G. Lucas. 2003. Mammalian biochronology of Blancan and Irvingtonian (Pliocene and Early Pleistocene) faunas from New Mexico. American Museum of Natural History, Bulletin no. 279:269-320.

Morgan, G S., P. L. Sealey, and S. G. Lucas. 2011. Pliocene and early Pleistocene (Blancan) vertebrates from the Palomas Formation in the vicinity of Elephant Butte Lake and Caballo Lake, Sierra County, southwestern New Mexico. Pp. 664-736 in Fossil Record 3 (R. M. Sullivan, S. G. Lucas, and J. A. Spielmann, eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 53:1-736.

Schultz, C. B., L. D. Martin, and L. G. Tanner. 1970. Mammalian distribution in the Great Plains and adjacent areas from 14,000 to 9,000 years ago. AMQUA Abstract, 1st Meeting, 1970:119-120.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Thompson, J. C., and G. S. Morgan. 2001. Late-Pleistocene mammalian fauna and environments of the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico. Current Research in the Pleistocene 18:113-115.

Vanderhill, J. B. 1986. Lithostratigraphy, vertebrate paleontology, and magnetostratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene sediments in the Mesilla Basin, New Mexico. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 305 pp.

Webb, S. David. (1992). A cranium of Navahoceros and its phylogenetic place among New World Cervidae. Annales Fennici Zoologici 28: 401-410.


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