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Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909

Balearic Islands cave goat

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

 

 

Conservation Status

Extinct

Last record: 4035 ± 32 BP, 2830-2470 cal. BC (Bover et al., 2016)

 

Distribution

Balearic Islands (Cabrera, Dragonera, Mallorca & Menorca)

 

Biology & Ecology

 

 

Hypodigm

 

 

Media

 

 

References

Original scientific description:

Bate, Dorothea M. A. (1909). Preliminary note on a new artiodactyle from Mallorca Myotragus balearicus, gen. et. sp. nov. Geological Magazine 6: 385-389.

 

Other references:

Alcover, J.A. (1976). L’ evoluci½ de Myotragus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Rupicaprini) un procès lligat al fenomen de la insularitat. But. Inst. Cat. Hist. Nat., Sec. Geol. 1, (1) 40, 59-94.

Alcover, Josep Antoni et al. (1998). Mammal Species of the World: Additional Data on Insular Mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248, 29 pp., 1 table.

Alcover, Josep Antoni and Dover, Pere. (2000). Extreme Insular Evolution in Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909(Artiodactyla, Caprinae). Tropics 10(1): 189-201.

Alcover JA, Moyà-Solà S, Pons-Moyà J (1981). Les Quimeres dels Passat. Els Vertebrats fòssils del Plio-Quaternaride les Balears i Pitiüses. Monografíes Científiques 1: 1-260.

Josep Antoni Alcover, Ramon Perez-obiol, Errikarta-imanol Yll, Pere Bover. (1999). The diet of Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla: Caprinae), an extinct bovid from the Balearic Islands: evidence from coprolites. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66(1): 57-74.

Andrews, C. W. (1915). A description of the skull and skeleton of a peculiarly modified rupicaprine antilope (Myotragus balearicus Bate), with a notice of a new variety Myotragus belearicus var. major. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London B, 206, 281-305.

Pere Arnau, Pere Bover, Bartomeu Seguí, Josep Antoni Alcover. (2000). Sobre alguns jaciments de Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) de tafonomia infreqüent. Endins 23: 89-100.

Bate, Dorothea M. A. (1914). On Remains of a Gigantic Land Tortoise (Testudo Gymnesious, N.Sp.) from the Pleistocene of Menorca. Geological Magazine (Decade VI) 1(3): 100-107. [Abstract]

Bover, G. and Quetglas, P. (1998). ReconstrucciÛ de l'esquelet de Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae): noves implicacions morfofuncionals. Boll. Soc. Hist. Nat. Balears. 41: 159-172.

Bover, P. and Alcover, J. A. (2005). Catàleg dels jaciments amb Myotragus a les Illes Balears. In: Alcover, J. A. and Bover, P. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Symposium 'Insular Vertebrate Evolution.: the Palaeon.tological Approach': Monografies de la Societat d'Història. Natural de les Balears, 12: 51-58.

Bover, P. (2004). Noves aportacions al coneixement del genere Myotragus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) de les Illes Balears. Tesi Doctoral. UIB, 1-470.

Bover, Pere and Alcover, Joseph Antoni. (1999a). Estimating physical characteristics of neonate myotragus balearicus (artiodactyla, Caprinae). Deinsea 7: 33-54.

Bover, Pere and Alcover, Joseph Antoni. (1999b). The evolution and ontogeny of the dentition of Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae): evidence from new fossil data. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68(3): 401-428.

Bover, Pere and Alcover, Joseph Antoni. (2003). Understanding Late quaternary extinctions: the case of Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909. Journal of Biogeography 30: 771-781. [Abstract]

Bover P, Fornós JJ, Alcover JA. (2005). Carpal bones, carpal fusions and footprints of Myotragus: clues for locomotion and behavior. In: ALcoVER, J.A. & BaVER, P. (eds.): Proceedings of the International Symposium 'Insular Vertebrate Evolution: the PalaeontologicalApproach': Monografies de la Societat d'Història Natural de les Balears, 12: 59-72.

Bover, Pere, Llamas, Bastien et al. (2019). Unraveling the phylogenetic relationships of the extinct bovid [i]Myotragus balearicus[/i] Bate 1909 from the Balearic Islands. Quaternary Science Reviews 215: 185-195. [Abstract]

Bover, P., Quintana, J., Alcover, J.A., (2010). A new species of Myotragus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from the Early Pliocene of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean). Geological Magazine 147(6): 871-885.

Bover, P. & RAMIS, D. 2005. Requiem for [i]Myotragus balearicus[/i] domestication. In: ALcovER, JA & BaVER, P. (eds.): Proceedings ofthe International Symposium "Insular Vertebrate Evolution: the Palaeontological Approach': Monografies de la Societat d'Història Natural de les Balears, 12: 73-84.

BovER, P. & TOLOSA, F. (2005). The olfactory ability of [i]Myotragus balearicus[/i]: preliminary notes. In ALCOVER, J.A. & BoVER, P. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium "Insular Vertebrate Evolution: the Palaeontological Approach". Monografies de la Societat d'Història Natural de les Balears 12: 85-94.

Bover, Pere et al. (2016). Closing the gap: New data on the last documented [i]Myotragus[/i] and the first human evidence on Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea). The Holocene. doi: 10.1177/0959683616645945 [Abstract]

Bromley, R.G., 2001a, Ugly trace fossils. Tetrapod tracks deepset in soft substrates: Holocene musk oxen in fluid earth (Greenland) and Pleistocene caprines in aeolian sand (Mallorca): Abstract. Fourth Argentinian Ichnologic Meeting and Second Ichnologic Meeting of the Mercosur, 24-28 Septiembre, 2001. San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Resúmenes, p. 8.

Bromley, R.G., 2001b, Ichnofabrics in Pleistocene aeolianites, Mallorca, Western Mediterrenean, produced by ruminant goats: new results. Abstracts, 6th International Ichnofabric Workshop, Venezuela, July 2001.

Bromley, R.G., 2001c, Tetrapod tracks deeply set in unsuitable substrates: Holocene musk oxen in fluid earth (East Greenland) and Pleistocene caprines in aeolian sand (Mallorca): Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, v. 48(2): 209-215.

De Esteban-Trivigno, S., Fortuny, J. and Köhler, M. (2011). Development of primary olfactive neocrotical area in the small-brained fossil insular bovid Myotragus balearicus. XXVII Jornadas de la Sociedad Española de Paleontología.

Dechaseaux, C. (1961). Moulages endocraniennes de bovidés fossiles. Annales de Paléontologie 47: 51-73.

Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad De and Köhler, Meike. (2011). New equations for body mass estimation in bovids: Testing some procedures when constructing regression functions. Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 76(6): 755-761. [Abstract]

Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl et al. (In Press, 2020). Phenolic metabolites from 5,000-year-old coprolites of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct insular bovid. Quaternary International. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2020.07.008 [Abstract]

Fornós, J. J.,  Bromley, R.G., Clemmensen, L.B., and Rodriguez-Perea, A. (2002). Tracks and trackways of Myotragus balearicus Bate (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) in Pleistocene aeolianites from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 180(4): 277-313.

Jordana, Xavier et al. (In Press, 2014). On the relationship between hypsodonty and longevity in Myotragus balearicus. A comment on van der Geer (2014). Intergrative Zoology. DOI: 10.1111/1749-4877.12117 [Abstract]

Jordana, Xavier and Köhler, Meike. (2011). Enamel microstructure in the fossil bovid Myotragus balearicus (Majorca, Spain): implications for life-history evolution of dwarf mammals in insular ecosystems. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 300(1): 59-66.

Jordana, X, Marín-Moratalla N, DeMiguel D, Kaiser TM, Köhler M (2012).Evidence of correlated evolution of hypsodonty and exceptional longevity in endemic insular mammals. Proceedings of the Royal Society B279(1741): 3339-3346.

Köhler, Meike and Moyà-Solà, Salvador. (2004). Reduction of brain and sense organs in the fossil insular bovid Myotragus. Brain Behav., 63: 125-140.

Köhler, Meike and Moyà-Solà, Salvador. (2009). Physiological and life history strategies of a fossil large mammal in a resource-limited environment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(48): 20354-20358.

Lalueza-Fox, C., Bertranpetit, J., Alcover, J.A., Shailer, N. & E. Hagelberg. (2000a). Mitochondrial DNA from Myotragus balearicus an Extinct Bovid from the Balearic Islands. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 288(1): 1-56. [Abstract]

Lalueza-Fox C, Bertranpetit J, Alcover JA, Shailer N, Hagelberg E. (2000b). Mitochondrial DNA from Myotragus balearicus, an extinct Bovid from the Balearic Islands.  J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) 288: 56-62. [duplicate citation?]

Carles Lalueza-Fox, Jaume Bertranpetit, Josep Antoni Alcover, Neil Shailer, Erika Hagelberg. (2000). An Extinct Bovid 1999: 56-62.

Carles Lalueza-Fox, Jose Castresana, Lourdes Sampietro, Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, Josep Antoni Alcover, Jaume Bertranpetit. (2005). Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5(1): 70.

LALUEZA-Fox, C, SAM PIETRO, L., MARQuÈs, T., ALCOVER, J. A. & BERTRANPETIl; J. 2005. Mitochondrial and nuclear genes from the extinct Balearic bovid Myotragus balearicus. In ALCOVER, JA & BOVER, P. (eds.): Proceedings ofthe International Symposium "Insular Vertebrate Evolution: the PalaeontologicalApproach". Monografies de la Societat d'Història Natural de les Balears 12: 145-154.

Lalueza-Fox, C., Shapiro, B., Bover, P., Alcover, J.A. & J. Bertrapetit. (2002). Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the extinct bovid Myotragus balearicus. [i]Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.[/i] [b]25[/b]: 501-510.

Masseti, Marco. (2008). The Most Ancient Explorations of the Mediterranean. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 59(1): supplement 1, 1-18, 9 figs.

Meiri, S. and Raia P (2010) Reptilian all the way? Proceedings of the National Academy of Science107, E27.

Merrilees, Duncan. (1971). Resemblances Between the Extinct "Cave Goat" (Eutheria, Bovidae) of the Balearic Islands and Phalangeroid Marsupials. Helictite 9(3): 51-60.

Moyà-Solà, S. (1979). Morfología funcional del tarso en el genero Myotragus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla, Rupicaprini). [i]Acta Geol. Hispanica[/i] [b]3(13)[/b]: 87-91.

Moyà-Solà, S., Köhler, M., Alba, D., Pons-Moyà, J. (2007). El significado de Myotragus batei y M. binigasensis en la evolución del género Myotragus (Bovidae, Mammalia) en la islas Baleares. In: Pons, G.X., Vicens, D. (Eds.), Geomorfologia litoral I Quaternari. Homenatge a Joan Cuerda Barceló. Monografies de la Societat d'Historia Natural de les Balears, 14. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, pp. 155-180.

Nunes, Victor Hugo Borba et al. (In Press, 2016). Paleoparasitological analysis of the extinct [i]Myotragus balearicus[/i] Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean). Parasitology International. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.11.009 [Abstract]

Palombo, M. R., Bover, P., Valli, A. M. F. and Alcover, J. A. (2006). The Plio-Pleistocene endemic bovids from the Western Mediterranean islands: knowledge, problems and perspectives. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences 41: 153-162.

Palombo, M. R., Kohler, M.. Sola, S. Moya and Giovinazzo, C. (2008). Brain versus body mass in endemic ruminant artiodactyls: A case studied of Myotragus balearicus and smallest Candiacervus species from Mediterranean Islands. Quaternary International 182(1): 160-183.

Quintana J. (1993). Descripción de un rastro de Myotragus e icnitas de Hypnomys del yacimiento cuaternario de Ses Penyes d'es Perico (Ciutadella de Menorca, Balears). Paleont Evol. 26–27: 271–279.

Quintana, J., Bover, P., Ramis, D. and J.A. Alcover. (2003). Cronologia de la desaparici. de Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 a Menorca. Endins, 25, 155-158.

Ramírez O, Gigli E, Bover P, Alcover JA, Bertranpetit J, et al. (2009). Paleogenomics in a Temperate Environment: Shotgun Sequencing from an Extinct Mediterranean Caprine. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5670. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005670

Ramis, D. (2001). A Review of the Evidence for Domestication of Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) in the Balearic Islands. Journal of Archaeological Science 28(3): 265-282.

Ramis, D. and Bover, P.  (2001). A review of the evidence for domestication of Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) in the Balearic Islands. Journal of Archaeological Science 28(3): 265-282.

Rivera, Leidy et al. (2014). Stomatal density and stomatal index of fossil Buxus from coprolites of extinct Myotragus balearicus Bate (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) as evidence of increased CO2 concentration during the late Holocene. The Holocene doi: 10.1177/0959683614530445 [Abstract]

Spoor, C. F. (1988a). The limb bones of Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909. Proc. Kon. Ned. Ak. Wet., ser. B, 91(3): 295-309.

Spoor, C. F. (1988b). The body proportions in Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909. Proc. Kon. Ned. Ak. Wet., ser. B, 91(3): 285-293.

van der Greer, Alexandra Anna. (2014). Parallel patterns and trends in functional structures in extinct island mammals. Integrative Zoology. DOI: 10.1111/1749-4877.12066

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Winkler, D. E. (2010). Dentition and Diet: New 3D-Methods help to discover Dental Adaptations in the Extinct Bovid Myotragus. MSc Thesis Hamburg University, Hamburg.

Winkler, D.E., Schulz, E., Calandra, I., Gailer, J.P., Landwehr, C., Kaiser, T.M., (2013). Indications for a dietary change in the extinct Bovid genus Myotragus (Plio-Holocene, Mallorca, Spain). Geobios 46: 143-150.

http://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/7721/balearic-islands-cave-goat

 

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