Hippopotamus pentlandi Von Meyer, 1832

Sicilian dwarf hippo[potamus]



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene



Sicily, Italy and Malta


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Von Meyer, H. (1832). Palaeologica zur Geschichte der Erde und ihrer Geschöpfe. Frankfurt. 11. 560pp.


Other references:

Bonfiglio, Laura. (1995). Taphonomy and depositional setting of Pleistocene mammal-bearing deposits from Acquedolci (North-Eastern Sicily). Geobios 18: 57-68. [automatic download]

Bouchez, R. et al. (1988?). Radiometric dating of Hippopotamus pentlandi from the Ghar Dalam cave, Malta. [privately circulated manuscript of paper presented at International Conference 'Early man in island environments' September 25 - October 2, 1988, Oliena, Sardinia, Italy]

Caloi, Lucia and Palombo, Maria Rita. (1982). Hippopotamus pentlandi Meyer di Capo Tindari (Messina). Geologica Romana 21: 395 (396?).

Caloi, Lucia and Palombo, Maria Rita. (1986). Some remarks about biometric characters of skulls of Hippopotamus pentlandi Von Meyer (Cannita Cave, Sicily) and pleistocene hippopotami of Western Europe / Osservazioni sui caratteri biometrici del cranio di Hippopotamus pentlandi Von Meyer della grotta della Cannita (Sicilia) e degli ippopotami pleistocenici dell'Europa Occidentale. Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy 1(2): 137-159.

Hunt, Christopher O. and Schembri, Patrick J. (1999). Quaternary environments and biogeography of the Maltese Islands, pp. 41-75. In: Mifsud, A. and Savona Ventura, C. (eds.). Facets of Maltese Prehistory. Malta: The Prehistoric Society of Malta, vii + 243 pp.

Ma, J. L. et al. (1988). ESR and Uranium series disequilibria dating of an [i]Hippopotamus pentlandi[/i] from the Ghar Dalam cave (Malta). Abstracts of the International Conference 'Early man in the island environments' September 25-Octover 2, 1988, Oliena (Sardinia); pp. 54; Sassari, Sardinia: Industria Grafica Stampacolor.

Maempel, G. Z. (1993), Skeletal pathology and congenital variations in the Maltese Pleistocene hippopotamus. Journal of Zoology, 231: 157-162. [Abstract]

Mangano, Gabriella et al. (2020). New finds from San Teodoro Cave: an updating of the Middle Pleistocene fossil record from Acquedolci (north-eastern Sicily). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12549-020-00430-7 [Abstract]

Marra, Antonella Cinzia. (2005). Pleistocene Hippopotamuses of Mediterranean islands: looking for ancestors. InALcoVER, J.A. & BOVER, P. (eds.): Proceedings of the International Symposium "Insular VertebrateEvolution: thePalaeontological Approach': Monografies de la Societatd'Història Natural de les Balears 12: 193-204.

Martino, Roberta and Pandolfi, Luca. (2020). Revision of the Quaternary hippopotamuses from Italy, pp. 80. In: Sobczyk A., Ratajczak-Skrzatek U., Kasprzak M., Kotowski A., Marciszak A., Stefaniak K. (eds.). Proceedings of INQUA SEQS 2020 Conference, Wrocław, Poland. University of Wrocław & Polish Geological Society. 124 pp.

Pandolfi, Luca et al. (2020). Investigating ecological and phylogenetic constraints in Hippopotamidae skull shape. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafi (Research in Paleontology and Stratigraphy) 126(1): 37-49.




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