Hippopotamus madagascariensis Guldberg, 1883

Madagascan dwarf hippopotamus, Madagascan pygmy hippo, Malagasy hippo



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Hippopotamus guldbergi Fovet, Faure & Guérin, 2011


Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene

IUCN RedList status: Extinct





Biology & Ecology










Boisserie, J.-R. (2016). Hippopotamus madagascariensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T40783A90128828. Downloaded on 23 July 2016.

Burney, D. A. and Ramilisonina. (1998). The kilopilopitsofy, kidoky and bokyboky: accounts of strange animals from Belo-sur-Mer, Madagascar, and the megafaunal “extinction window”. American Anthropologist 100(4): 957-966. [automatic download]

Faure, M., Guérin, C. and Ohler, A.-M. (2015). Le statut du nom Hippopotamus madagascariensis Guldberg, 1883. Réponse à Rakotovao et al. 2014. Geodiversitas 37: 267-269.

Godfrey, L. R. (1986). The Tale of the Tsy-aomby-aomby. The Sciences [1986]: 49-51.

Huminsky, Isabella. (2017). The Discovery of Extinct Hippopotami Fossils in Anjohibe Cave. Thesis, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. 11 pp.

Mahé, J., and Sourdat, M. (1972). Sur l'extinction des vertébrés subfossiles et I'aridification du climat dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 14: 295-309.

Pandolfi, Luca et al. (2020). Investigating ecological and phylogenetic constraints in Hippopotamidae skull shape. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafi (Research in Paleontology and Stratigraphy) 126(1): 37-49.

Raybaud. (1902). Rapport de M. I'administrateur Raybaud sur les gisements fossiliferes d'Ampasambazimba. Bulletin de l'Academie Malgache 1(2): 64-67.

Stuenes, S. (1989). Taxonomy, habits, and relationships of the subfossil Madagascan hippopotami Hippopotamus lemerlei and H. madagascariensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9(3): 241-268.


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