Hippopotamus laloumena Faure & Guérin, 1990

Malagasy hippo[potamus], Laloumene's hippo[potamus]



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene (Faure & Guérin, 1990)

IUCN RedList status: Taxonomic validity uncertain





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Faure, M. and Guérin, C. (1990). Hippopotamus laloumena nov. sp., la troisième espèce d'hippopotame holocène de Madagascar. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 310: 1299-1305.


Other references:

Boisserie, J.-R. (2014). Hippopotamus guldbergi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. ( Downloaded on 25 November 2014.

Burney, D. A., Pigott, B. L., Godfrey, L. R., Jungers, W. L., Goodmane, S. M., Wright, H. T. and Jull, A. J. T. (2004). A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution [2004]: 25-63.

Burney, David A. and Ramilisonina. (1998). The Kilopilopitsofy, Kidoky, and Bokyboky: Accounts of Strange Animals from Belo-sur-mer, Madagascar, and the Megafaunal "Extinction Window". American Anthropologist 100(4): 957-66. [automatic download]

Crowley, B. E. A refined chronology of prehistoric Madagascar and the demise of the megafauna. Quat. Sci. Rev. 29, 2591–2603 (2010).

Crowley, Brooke Erin, Godfrey, Laurie Rohde and Samonds, Karen Elizabeth. (2023). What can hippopotamus isotopes tell us about past distributions of C4 grassy biomes on Madagascar? Plants, People, Planet.

Eltringham, S.K. (1999). The Hippos. Poyser Natural History Series. London: Academic Press.

Faure, M., Guérin, C., Genty, D., Gommery, D. and Ramanivosoa, B. 2010. Le plus ancien hippopotame fossile (Hippopotamus laloumena) de Madagascar (Belobaka, Province de Mahajanga). Comptes Rendus Palevol 9: 155-162.

Goodman, S. M. & Jungers, W. L. Extinct Madagascar: Picturing the island’s past. (University of Chicago Press, 2014).

Joseph, Grant S. and Seymour, Colleen L. (2022). Are Madagascar's obligate grazing-lawns ancient and evolved with endemic herbivores, or recently selected by introduced cattle? Biology Letters 18: 20220212.

Michielsen, Nathan M., Goodman, Steven M., Soarimalala, Voahangy, van der Geer, Alexandra A. E., Dávalos, Liliana M., Saville, Grace I., Upham, Nathan and Valente, Luis. (2023). The macroevolutionary impact of recent and imminent mammal extinctions on Madagascar. Nature Communications 14: 14. [Supplementary Data 1 (mammal list); Supplementary Data 6 (references)]

Samonds, Karen E. et al. (2019). A new late Pleistocene subfossil site (Tsaramody, Sambaina basin, central Madagascar) with implications for the chronology of habitat and megafaunal community change on Madagascar’s Central Highlands. Journal of Quaternary Science 34(6): 379-392.

Turvey, Samuel T. (2009a). In the shadow of the megafauna: prehistoric mammal and bird extinctions across the Holocene, pp. 17-39. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Turvey, Samuel T. (2009b). Holocene mammal extinctions, pp. 41-61. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Turvey, Samuel T. and Fritz, Susanne A. (2011). The ghosts of mammals past: biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366(1577): 2564-2576. [Supplementary Information]

Weston, Eleanor M. and Lister, Adrian M. (2009). Insular dwarfism in hippos and a model for brain size reduction in Homo floresiensis. Nature 459: 85-88.


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