Hemiauchenia macrocephala Cope, 1893

Big-headed llama



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene?



New Mexico, USA


Biology & Ecology










Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Dalquest, Walter W. (1977). Mammals of the Holloman Local Fauna, Pleistocene of Oklahoma. Southwestern Naturalist 22:255-268.

Faunmap working group. 1994 FAUNMAP: a database documenting late Quaternary distributions of mammal species in the United States. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers 25(1-2), 1-690.

Gasparini, Germán Mariano, Reyes, Martín De los, Francia, Analía, Scherer, Carolina Saldanha and Poiré, Daniel Gustavo. (In Press, 2017). The oldest record of Hemiauchenia Gervais and Ameghino (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla) in South America: comments about its paleobiogeographic and stratigraphic implications. Geobios. [Abstract]

González, S. and Huddart, D. (2008). The Late Pleistocene human occupation of Mexico. FUMDHAMentos, Publicação da Fundação Museu do Homem Americano 7: 236-259.

Harris, A. H. (1989). The New Mexican late Wisconsin—east versus west. National Geographic Research 5: 205-217.

Harris, Arthur H. (1993). Quaternary vertebrates of New Mexico, pp. 179-197. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in New Mexico, New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 2:i-vii, 1-338.

Harris, A. H. 2003. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Pendejo Cave. Pp. 36-65, in Pendejo Cave (R. S. MacNeish and J. G. Libby, eds.), University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 526 pp.

Jefferson, G. T. 1991. A catalogue of Late Quaternary vertebrates from California. Part two: Mammals. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Technical Reports 7:1-129.

Kurtén, B., and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America. Columbia Univ. Press, New York. 442 pp.

Lundelius, Ernest L., Jr. (2022). Pleistocene vertebrates from Stonewall County, Texas. In: Morgan, Gary S. et al. Late Cenozoic Vertebrates from the American Southwest: A Tribute to Arthur H. Harris. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 88: 233-257.

Marín-Leyva, Alejandro Hiram et al. (2022). Environmental inferences based on the dietary ecology of camelids from west-central Mexico during the Late Pleistocene. Historical Biology.

Morgan, Gary S. (2022). Arthur H. Harris–a man of many talents: mammalogist, paleontologist, paleoecologist, zooarchaeologist. In: Morgan, Gary S. et al. Late Cenozoic Vertebrates from the American Southwest: A Tribute to Arthur H. Harris. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 88: 1-9.

Morgan, G. S., and S. G. Lucas. 2005. Pleistocene vertebrate faunas in New Mexico from alluvial, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits. Pp. 185-248, in New Mexico's Ice Ages (Lucas, S. G., G. S. Morgan, and K. E. Zeigler, eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 28:1-280.

Murray, L. K. 2008. Effects of taxonomic and locality inaccuracies on biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Hueso and Tapiado formations in the Vallecito Creek–Fish Creek Section, Anza-Borrego Desert, California. PhD Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, pp. i-xxiii, 1-532.

Schultz, J. R. 1937. A Late Quaternary mammal fauna from the tar seeps of McKittrick, California. Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, 202 pp + 2 plates.

Springer, Kathleen B., Pigati, Jeffrey S. and Scott, Eric. (2017). Vertebrate Paleontology, Stratigraphy, and Paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA). Geology of the Intermountain West 4: 55-98.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Springer, K., E. Scott, C. Sagebiel, and L. K. Murray. 2009. The Diamond Valley Lake local fauna: Late Pleistocene vertebrates from inland southern California. Pp. 217-235, in Papers on geology, vertebrate paleontology, and biostratigraphy in honor of Michael O. Woodburne (L. G. Albright, III, ed.). Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 65, Flagstaff, Arizona.

Stock, C., and J. M. Harris. 1992. Rancho la Brea: A record of Pleistocene life in California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series no. 37, 7th ed.:i-xiv + 1-113.

Thompson, J. C., and G. S. Morgan. 2001. Late-Pleistocene mammalian fauna and environments of the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico. Current Research in the Pleistocene 18: 113-115.

Webb, S. D. 1974. Pleistocene Llamas of Florida, with a brief review of the Lamini. Pp. 170-213, in Pleistocene mammals of Florida (S. D. Webb, ed.). University Presses of Florida, Gainesville, 270 pp.


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