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Elaphurus davidianus Milne-Edwards, 1866

Pere David's deer, Père David's deer, Milu

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

 

 

Conservation Status

Extinct in the wild

Last record: 1939

IUCN RedList status: Extinct in the Wild

 

Distribution

China

 

Biology & Ecology

 

 

Hypodigm

WAM 2847 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981)

WAM 10709 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981)

 

Media

 

 

References

Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

Bai, Jiade et al. (2021). The 35th anniversary of the reintroduction of Milu deer to China: History, population status, achievements and challenges. Biodiversity Science 29(2): 160-166.

Bapodra, Priya and Wolfe, Barbara A. (2015). Investigation of Neospora caninum seroprevalence and potential impact on reproductive success in semi-free-ranging Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Vet Rec Open 2: e000123.

Bazyan, Saloume. (2013). Sexual selection and extinction in deer. Master of Science. Uppsala University. 62 pp.

Beck, B. B. and Wemmer, C. (1983). The Biology and Management of an Extinct Species: Père David’s Deer. Park Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Publications.

Bedford, (12th) Duke of. (1951-1952). Père David’s deer; the history of the Woburn herd. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 121: 327-333.

C Bunert  S Langer  D M Votion  F Boemer  A Müller  K Ternes  A Liesegang. (Accepted, 2018). Atypical Myopathy in Père David’s Deer (Elaphurus davidianus) Associated with Ingestion of Hypoglycin A. Journal of Animal Science. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky200 [Abstract]

Campbell, S. (1980). Is reintroduction a realistic goal? In: M. E. Soulè and B. A. Wilcox (eds), Conservation Biology, An Evolutionary--Ecological Perspective, pp. 263-269. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts, USA.

Cao, K. (1985) On the reasons of extinction of the wild Mi-Deer in China. Zoological Research. 6(1): 110-115.

Cao, K. (1993). Selection of a suitable area for reintroduction of wild Pere David’s in China. In: N. Ohtaishi and H. I. Sheng (eds), Deer of China: Biology and Management, pp. 297-300. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Deer of China/Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

Cao, K. (2007). The origin of traditional Chinese medicine, Elaphurus davidianus. In: J. Xia (ed.), The International Symposium on the 20th Anniversary of Milu Returning Home, pp. 20-24. Beijing Press, Beijing, China.

Cao, K., Qiu, L., Chen, B. and Niao, B. (1988). Chinese Milu. Xuelin Press, Shanghai, China.

Carnio, J. and Killmar, L. (1983). Identification techniques. In: Beck BB, Wemmer C eds. The Biology and Management of An Extinct Species Père David's Deer. New Jersey: Noyes Publication, 39–52. 

Chai, S., Li, X., Zhang, L. and Rao, C. (2007). Observation on clinical effect of Milu’s pilose antler and Milu’s antler on women’s irregular menstruation. In: J. Xia (ed.), The International Symposium on the 20th Anniversary of Milu Returning Home, pp. 66-68. Beijing Press, Beijing, China.

Changqing, Yu. (1996). Status of genetic diversity and conservation strategy of Pere David's deer in China. Biodiversity Science 4(3): 130-134. [Abstract]

Dayuan, Xue et al. (2022). Père David's Deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in China: Population Dynamics and Challenges. J. of Resources and Ecology 13(1): 41-50. https://doi.org/10.5814/j.issn.1674-764x.2022.01.005

Derix, Jill et al. (2019). Retention of solutes and particles in the gastrointestinal tract of a grazing cervid: Père David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus). European Journal of Wildlife Research. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-019-1288-0 [Abstract]

Ding Y. H. (2004). Chinese milu research (in Chinese). Changchun, China: Jilin Publishing House for the Science and Technology.

Ding, Y. (2007). The living ability of the Père David’s deer in the Yellow Sea wetlands. In: J. Xia (ed.), The International Symposium on the 20th Anniversary of Milu Returning Home, pp. 20-22. Beijing Press, Beijing, China.

Heckeberg, Nicola S., Zachos, Frank E. and Kierdorf, Uwe. (Accepted, 2022). Antler tine homologies and cervid systematics – a review of past and present controversies with special emphasis on Elaphurus davidianus. The Anatomical Record. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.24956

Hofmann, R. R. (2007). The Milu (Elaphurus davidianus), a recently evolved Chinese ruminant species with a unique morphology pointing a specific ecological adaptation. In: J. Xia (ed.), The International Symposium on the 20th Anniversary of Milu Returning Home, pp. 119-122. Beijing Press, Beijing, China.

Hu, H. and Jiang, Z. (2002). Experimental release of Père David’s deer in Dafeng Reserve, China. Oryx 36(2): 196-199.

Huang SY, Fan YM, Yang Y, Ren YJ, Gong JZ, Yao N, et al. (2020). Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Père David’s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in Jiangsu, China. Braz J Vet Parasitol 29(2): e017919.

Huiling Qiu, Fu Chen, Xinyan Leng, Rongmei Fei, and Libo Wang. (In Press, 2014). Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens Fecal Isolates of Reintroduced Père David's Deer in China. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. [Abstract]

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Jiang, Zhigang. (2011). Milu and Biodiversity in the Dafeng Milu National Nature Reserve. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press.

Jiang, Zhigang. (2013). Re-introduction of Père David’s deer “Milu” to Beijing, Dafeng & Shishou, China, pp. 143-147. In: Soorae, P. S. (ed.). Global Re-introduction Perspectives: 2013. Further case studies from around the globe. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group and Abu Dhabi, UAE: Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi. xiv + 282 pp. [automatic download]

Jiang, Zhigang and Harris, R. B. (2008). Elaphurus davidianus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. (http://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 15 July 2012.

Jiang, Zhigang, Kaji, Koichi and Ping, Xiaoge. (Accepted, 2015). The Tale of Two Deer: Management of Milu and Sika Deer in Anthropogenic Landscape of East Asia. Animal Production Science. [Abstract]

Jiang, Z. and Li, D. (1999). Land cover change and the conservation of Père David’s deer and Przewalski’s gazelle. Chinese Journal of Natural Resource 14: 334-339.

Jiang, Z., Feng, Z., Yu, C., Zhang, L., Xia, J., Ding, Y. and Lindsay, N. (2000). Reintroduction and recovery of Père David’s deer in China. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(3): 681-687.

Jiang, Z., Li, C. and Zeng, Y. (2006). Mating system, mating tactics and effective population size in Père David’s deer. Acta Ecologica Sinca 26: 2255-2260.

Jiang, Z., Li, C., Yang, D., Zeng, Y. and Fang, H. (2008). Père David Deer in China: Current Status and Conservation Strategies, pp. 1-8. Proceedings of the 20th Anniversary of Milu Returning Dafeng. Milu Research and Management. Nanjing, China: Nanjing Normal University Press.

Jiang, Z., Li, C., Zeng, Y. and Widemo, F. (2004). “Harem defending” or “challenging”: alternative individual mating tactics in Père David’s deer under different time constraint. Acta Zoologica Sinica 50: 706-713.

Jiang, Z., Liu, B., Zeng, Y., Han, G. and Hu, H. (2000). Attracted by the same sex, or repelled by the opposite sex?—Sexual segregation in Père David’s deer. Chinese Science Bulletin 45: 485-491.

Jiang, Z., Zhang, L., Yang, R., Xia, J., Rao, C., Ding, Y., Shen, H., Xu, A. and Yu, C. (2001). Population density dependent growth in Père David’s deer and its population development strategies in China. Acta Zoologica Sinica 47: 41-48.

Jiao Y, Ge Y-F, Fang S. G. (2008). Eight novel microsatellite markers from the Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Conserv Genet 9:771–773.

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Jones, M. L. and Manton, V. J. A. (1983). History in captivity. In: B. Beck and C. M. Wemmer (eds), The Biology and Management of an Extinct Species: Père David's Deer, pp. 1-14. Noyes Publications, New Jersey, USA.

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Li, C. Jiang, Z., Jiang, G. and Fang, J. (2001). Seasonal changes of reproductive behavior and fecal steroid concentrations in Père David’s deer. Hormones and Behavior 40: 518-525.

Li, C., Jiang, Z., Zeng, Y. and Yan, C. (2004). Relationship between Serum Testosterone, Dominance and Mating Success in Père David’s Deer Stags. Ethology 110: 1-11.

Li, C., Jiang, Z., Tang, S. and Zeng, Y. (2007). Evidence of effects of human disturbance on alert responses in Père David's deer Elaphurus davidianus. Zoo. Biol. 26: 461–470.

Li C, Yang X, Ding Y, Zhang L, Fang H et al. (2011). Do Père David's deer lose memories of their ancestral predators? PLoS One. 6: e23623. 

Li, F., Meng, F., Wang, S. and Chen, Y. (2007). The management of Milu. In: J. Xia (ed.), The International Symposium on the 20th Anniversary of Milu Returning Home, pp. 80-81. Pp. 20-22.. Beijing Press, Beijing, China.

Li, Yuan et al. (2022). Seasonal differences of the Milu's home range at the early rewilding stage in Dongting Lake area, China. Global Ecology and Conservation 35: e02057. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2022.e02057

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Song, Y. C. et al. (2015). Regulation of free-ranging Milu population in Shishou, Hubei, China: a density-dependent decrease in birth rate. Biodiver. Sci. 23: 33-40 (In Chinese with English Abstract) (2015).

Song, Y. C. et al. Sex-biased dispersal in naturally re-wild Milu in the Dongting Lake Region, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 35, 4416–4424 (In Chinese with English abstract) (2015).

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Sternicki T, Szablewski P, Szwaczkowski T, (2003). Inbreeding effects on lifetime in David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus Milne Edwards, 1866) population. Journal of Applied Genetics 44: 175-183.

Tolulope I.N. Perrin-Stowe, Yasuko Ishida, Emily E. Terrill, Dan Beetem, Oliver A. Ryder, Jan E. Novakofski, Nohra E. Mateus-Pinilla, Alfred L. Roca. (2021). Variation In The PRNP Gene Of Pere David’s Deer (Elaphurus davidianus) May Impact Genetic Vulnerability To Chronic Wasting Disease. Research Square preprint. DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-566057/v1

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http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-10/26/c_136705954.htm

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/animalkind/2018/10/15/milu-deer-fighting-its-way-out-extinction/1617748002/

http://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/7508/pere-davids-deer