Damaliscus niro Hopwood, 1936

Pleistocene blesbok, Bastard hartebeest



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Hippotragus niro Hopwood, 1936


Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene





Biology & Ecology




KGA10-2787 (left horn core)

KGA10-956 (frontlet )






Original scientific description:

Hopwood, A. T. (1936). New and little-known fossil mammals from the Pleistocene of Kenya Colony and Tanganyika Territory. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 10, 10(17): 636-641.


Other references:

Brink, J.S., 1987. The archaeozoology of Florisbad, Orange Free State. Mem. Natl. Mus. Bloemfontein 24: 1-151.

Brophy, Juliet Krueger. (2004). Preliminary Report on the Faunal Remains and Taphonomic Analysis of Plover's Lake Cave, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa. Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee.

Churchill, S. E. et al. (2000). Erfkroon: a new Florisian fossil locality from fluvial contexts in the western Free State, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 96: 161-163.

Codron, D., Brink, J.S., Rossouw, L., Clasuss, M., 2008. The evolution of ecological specialization in southern African ungulates: competition or physical environmental turnover. Oikos 117: 334-353.

Cooke, H. B. S. (1974). The geology, archaeology and fossil mammals of the Cornelia Beds, Orange Free State. Mem. Natl. Mus. Bloemfontein 35: 1-109.

de Ruiter, D., Brophy, J.K., Lewis, P.J., Churchill, S.E., Berger, L.R. (2008). Faunal assemblage composition and paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake, a Middle Stone Age locality in Gauteng Province, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 2008: 1102-1117.

Faith, J. Tyler. (2014). Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa. Earth-Science Reviews 128: 105-121.

Faurby, S. et al. (2018). PHYLACINE 1.2: The phylogenetic atlas of mammal macroecology. Ecology 99: 2626.

Fortelius, M. et al. (2016). An ecometric analysis of the fossil mammal record of the Turkana Basin. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371, 20150232.

Rosalia Gallotti, Carmine Collina, Jean-Paul Raynal, Guy Kieffer, Denis Geraads and Marcello Piperno. (2010). The Early Middle Pleistocene Site of Gombore II (Melka Kunture, Upper Awash, Ethiopia) and the Issue of Acheulean Bifacial Shaping Strategies. Afr. Archaeol. Rev. 27: 291-322.

Gentry, A. W. (1965). New evidence on the systematic position of Hippotragus niro Hopwood, 1936 (Mammalia). Journal of Natural History Ser. 13 8(90): 335-338. [Abstract]

Gentry, A.W., Gentry, A., 1978. Fossil Bovidae of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Geol. Ser. 29: 289-446.

Geraads, D., Alemseged, Z., Reed, D., Wynn, J., Roman, D.C. (2004). The Pleistocene fauna (other than Primates) from Asbole, lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia, and its environmental and biochronological implications. Geobios 37: 697-718.

Klein, Richard G. (1974). A Provisional Statement on Terminal Pleistocene Mammalian Extinctions in the Cape Biotic Zone (Southern Cape Province, South Africa). Goodwin Series No. 2, Progress in Later Cenozoic Studies in South Africa: 39-45.

Klein, Richard G. and Cruze-Uribe, K. (1991). The bovids from Elandsfontein, South Africa, and their implications for the age, palaeoenvironment ad origins of the site. Afr. Archaeol. Rev. 9: 21-79.

Lauer, Daniel A. et al. (2023). Disruption of trait-environment relationships in African megafauna occurred in the middle Pleistocene. Nature Communications 14: 4016.

Oksanen, O., Žliobaitė, I., Saarinen, J., Lawing, A. M. & Fortelius, M. (2019). A Humboldtian approach to life and climate of the geological past: Estimating palaeotemperature from dental traits of mammalian communities. Journal of Biogeography 46: 1770-1776.

Stynder, D. D. (2009). The diets of ungulates from the hominid fossil-bearing site of Elandsfontein, Western Cape, South Africa. Quaternary Research 71(1): 62-70. [Abstract]

Gen Suwa, Hideo Nakaya, Berhane Asfaw, Haruo Saegusa, Awoke Amzaye, Reiko T. Kono, Yonas Beyene and Shigehiro Katoh. (2003). Plio-Pleistocene Terrestrial Mammal Assemblage from Konso, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(4): 901-916.

Thackeray, John Francis. (1987). Horns of Damaliscus niro from Wonderwerk Cave. Pal News 5(3): 2-4.

Thackeray, John Francis. (1989). Found: Damaliscus niro horn from Wonderwerk Cave. Pal News 6(3): 2-3.

Thackeray, John Francis. (1990). More on Damaliscus niro from Wonderwerk Cave. Pal News 6(4): 3-4.

Thackeray, John Francis and Brink, J. S. (2004). Damaliscus niro horns from Wonderwerk Cave and other Pleistocene sites: Morphological and chronological considerations. Palaeontol Afr. 40: 89-93.

Vrba, E. S. (1997). New fossils of Alcelaphini and Caprinae (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Awash, Ethiopia, and phylogenetic analysis of Alcelaphini. Paleontol. Afr. 34: 127-198.

Williamson B.S. (1996). The identification of the sister taxon to the extinct antelope, Damaliscus niro, using sequence data. M.Sc. thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.


<< Back to the Cetartiodactyla (Even-toed Ungulates) database