Camelops hesternus Leidy, 1873

Yesterday's camel, Western camel



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Leidy, J. (1873). Contributions to the extinct vertebrate fauna of the Western Territories. U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories, Report 1: 14-358.


Other references:

Balcarcel, A. M., Bastiaans, D. and Orliac, M. J. (2022). Endocranial Casts of Camelops hesternus and Palaeolama sp.: New Insights into the Recent History of the Camelid Brain. Brain Behav. Evol.

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Buckley, M. et. al. (In Press, 2018). Collagen sequence analysis of fossil camels, Camelops and c.f. Paracamelus, from the Arctic and sub-Arctic of Plio-Pleistocene North America. Journal of Proteomics. doi: [Abstract]

Burns J.A. 2010 Mammalian faunal dynamics in Late Pleistocene Alberta, Canada. Quaternary International 217(1-2): 37-42.

Carbot-Chanona, Gerardo et al. (2023). A new specimen of Camelops hesternus (Artiodactyla, Camelidae) from Valsequillo, Puebla, Mexico, with comments about their dietary preferences and the population density of the species. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 130: 104594.

Cohen, Joshua E. et al. (In press, 2021). Dietary stability inferred from dental mesowear analysis in large ungulates from Rancho La Brea and opportunistic feeding during the late Pleistocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. doi: [Abstract]

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Faunmap working group. 1994 FAUNMAP: a database documenting late Quaternary distributions of mammal species in the United States. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers 25(1-2): 1-690.

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Heintzman, Peter D. et al. (2015). Genomic data from extinct North American Camelops revise camel evolutionary history. Molecular Biology and Evolution 32(9): 2433-2440. [Abstract]

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Kottkamp, Scott et al. (2022). Pleistocene vertebrates from Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. In: Morgan et al. (eds.). Late Cenozoic Vertebrate Paleontology: Tribute to Arthur H. Harris. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 88: 267-290.

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Mead, J. I., N. J. Czaplewski, and L. D. Agenbroad. 2005. Rancholabrean (Late Pleistocene) mammals and localities of Arizona. Pp. 139-180, in (R. D. McCord, ed.) Vertebrate Paleontology of Arizona, Mesa Southwest Museum Bulletin No. 11.

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Morgan, G. S., and S. G. Lucas. 2003. Mammalian biochronology of Blancan and Irvingtonian (Pliocene and Early Pleistocene) faunas from New Mexico. American Museum of Natural History, Bulletin no. 279:269-320.

Morgan, G. S., and S. G. Lucas. 2005. Pleistocene vertebrate faunas in New Mexico from alluvial, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits. Pp. 185-248, in New Mexico's Ice Ages (Lucas, S. G., G. S. Morgan, and K. E. Zeigler, eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 28:1-280.

Morgan, G. S., and L. F. Rinehart. 2007. Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) mammals from fissure deposits in the Jurassic Todilto Formation, White Mesa mine, Sandoval County, north-central New Mexico. New Mexico Geology 29(2):39-51.

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Tomas-Mosso, Azarael, Castañeda-Posadas, Carlos, Cruz, J. Alberto and Alarcón-Durán, Iván. (2024). Pleistocene record of mammals and pollen from Mexico (Las Tazas, Valsequillo, Puebla) and their paleoenvironmental interpretation. Palaeontologia Electronica 27(1): a15.

Waters, Michael R., Stafford, Thomas W. Jnr., Kooyman, Brian and Hills, L. V. (2015). Late Pleistocene horse and camel hunting at the southern margin of the ice-free corridor: Reassessing the age of Wally’s Beach, Canada. PNAS 112(14):  4263-4267.

Wilson, R. W. (1933). Pleistocene mammalian fauna from the Carpinteria asphalt. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Publication 440: 60-76.

Zazula, Grant D., MacPhee, R. D. E., Hall, Elizabeth and Hewitson, Susan. (2016). Osteological Assessment of Pleistocene Camelops hesternus (Camelidae: Camelinae: Camelini) from Alaska and Yukon. American Museum Novitates Number 3866: 1-45.

Zazula, Grant D., MacPhee, R. D. E., Southon, John, Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta, Reyes, Alberto V., Hewitson, Susan and Hall, Elizabeth. (2017). A case of early Wisconsinan “over-chill”: New radiocarbon evidence for early extirpation of western camel (Camelops hesternus) in eastern Beringia. Quaternary Science Reviews 171: 48-57. [Abstract]

Zazula, Grant D., Turner, D. G., Ward, B. C. and Bond, J. (2011). Last interglacial western camel (Camelops hesternus) from eastern Beringia. Quaternary Science Reviews 30(19-20): 2355-2360. [Abstract]


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