Bos primigenius primigenius Bojanus, 1825

Aurochs, Urus, Auerochs (archaic)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Bos primigenius primigenius Bojanus, 1827; Bos primigenius Bojanus, 1827; Bos taurus primigenius (Bojanus, 1827); Bos primigenius italics Pohlig, 1911; Bos primigenius siciliae Pohlig, 1911; Bovinichnus uripeda de Carvalho et al., 2022 [ichnotaxon]


Conservation Status


Last Record: 1627 (Goodwin & Goodwin, 1973; Fisher & Blomberg, 2012) [but see 'Notes' below]

IUCN status: Extinct


The Aurochs was a huge species of wild cattle. And although now extinct, their genes live on in the many domestic breeds of cattle that still survive (Achilli et al. 2008). The last Aurochs bull has traditionally been said to have died in 1620. While the last female is said to have been killed in Poland's Jaktorów Forest in 1627, exactly 200 years before Bojanus formally described the species. However, a new study (Bro-Jørgensen, 2018) has found that the last male was not pure. This suggests that the last female was also not pure, and hence the Aurochs' extinction chronology will need to be revised.





Biology & Ecology




Gravlund et. al. (2012) examined 39 aurochs specimens.






Original scientific description:

Bojanus, Ludwig Heinrich. (1825). De uro nostrato ejusque sceleto commentatio, Bovis primigenii sceleto aucta. Palaeontology Library of Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris.


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