Bos primigenius mauretanicus Thomas, 1881

North African aurochs



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Bos mauretanicus Thomas, 1881; Bos primigenius africanus Thomas, 1881


May be valid as Bos primigenius africanus.


Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



North Africa


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Thomas, P. (1881). Recherches sur les bovidés fossiles de l'Algérie. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 6: 92-136.

Other references:

Aouraghe, H. (2004). Les populations de mammifères atériens d'El Harhoura 1 (Témara, Maroc). Bull. Archaeol. Marocaine 20: 83-104.

Bougariane, B., Zouhri, S., Ouchaou, B., Oujaa, A., Boudad, L., 2010. Large mammals from the Upper Pleistocene at Tamaris I ‘Grotte des gazelles’ (Casablanca, Morocco): paleoecological and biochronological implications. Hist. Biol. 22: 295-302.

Bradley, D. G., MacHugh, D. E., Cunningham, P. and Loftus, R. T. (1996). Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and European cattle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93: 5131-5135.

Churcher, C. S. (1972). Late Pleistocene vertebrates from archaeological sites in the Plain of Kom Ombo, Upper Egypt. R. Ont. Mus. Life Sci. Contrib. 82: 1-172.

Churcher, C.S., 1974. Relationships of the late Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Kom Ombo, Upper Egypt. Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 4: 363-384.

Churcher, C.S., 1999. Holocene faunas of the Dakleh Oasis. In: Churcher, C.S., Mills, A.J. (eds.), Reports From the Survey of the Dakleh Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt 1977–1987. Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp. 133-151.

Churcher, C. S. and Smith, P. E. L. (1972). Kom Ombo: preliminary report on the fauna of late Paleolithic sites in Upper Egypt. Science 177: 259-261.

Dibble, H.L., Aldeias, V., Alvarez-Fernandez, E., Blackwell, B.A.B., Hallet-Desguez, E., Jacobs, Z., Goldberg, P., Lin, S.C., Morala, A., Meyer, M.C., Olszewski, D.I., Reed, K., Reed, D., Rezek, Z., Richter, D., Roberts, R.G., Sandgathe, D., Schurmans, U., Skinner, A.R., Steele, T.E., El Hajraoui, M.A., 2012. New excavations at the site of Contrebandiers Cave, Morocco. PaleoAnthropology 2012, 145-201.

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Gautier, A., 1976. Animal remains from localities near Dishna. In: Wendorf, F., Schild, R. (Eds.), Prehistory of the Nile Valley. Academic Press, New York, pp. 365-368.

Gautier, A. (1988). The final demise of Bos ibericus? Sahara 1: 37-48. [Abstract]

Gifford-Gonzalez, Diane and Hanotte, Olivier. (2011). Domesticating animals in Africa: implications of genetic and archaeological findings. J World Prehistory 24: 1-23. [Abstract]

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Klein, R.G., Scott, K., 1986. Re-analysis of faunal assemblages from the Haua Fteah and other late Quaternary archaeological sites in Cyernaican Libya. J. Archaeol. Sci. 13, 515–542.

Lydekker, Richard. (1898). Wild Oxen, Sheep & Goats of all Lands, Living and Extinct. London: Rowland Ward.

Marks, A.E., Peters, J., Van Neer, W., 1987. Late Pleistocene and early Holocene occupations in the Upper Atbara River Valley, Sudan. In: Close, A.E. (Ed.), Prehistory of Arid North Africa: Essays in Honor of Fred Wendorf. Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, pp. 137–162.

Michel, P., 1992. Pour une meilleure connaissance du Quaternaire Continental Marocain: les vertébrés fossiles du Maroc Atlantique. Cent. Orient. Anthropologie 96, 643–656.

Michel, P., Campmas, E., Stoetzel, E., Nespoulet, R., Abdeljalil El Hajraoui, A., Amani, F., 2009. La macrofaune du Pléistocène supérieur d'El Harhoura 2 (Témara, Maroc): données préliminaires. Anthropologie 113, 283–312.

Monchot, H., Aouraghe, H., 2009. Deciphering the taphonomic history of an Upper Paleolithic faunal assemblage from Zouhrah Cave/El Harhoura 1, Morocco. Quaternaire 20, 239–253.

Nespoulet, R., El Hajraoui, M.A., Amani, F., Ben Ncer, A., Debénath, A., El Idrissi, A., Lacombe, J.-P., Michel, P., Oujaa, A., Stoetzel, E., 2008. Palaeolithic and Neolithic occupations in the Temara region (Rabat, Morocco): recent data on hominin contexts and behavior. Afr. Archaeol. Rev. 25, 21–39.

Peters, J., 1992. Late Quaternary mammalian remains from Central and Eastern Sudan and their palaeoenvironmental significance. Palaeoecol. Afr. Surrounding Islands Antarct. 23, 91–115.

Tikhonov, A. (2008). Bos primigenius. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 15 October 2011.

Turvey, S.T., 2009. In the shadow of the megafauna: prehistoric mammal and bird extinctions across the Holocene. In: Turvey, S.T. (Ed.), Holocene Extinctions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 17–40.

Vermeersch, P.M. (Ed.), 2000. Palaeolithic Living Sites in Upper and Middle Egypt. Leuven University Press, Leuven.

Wendorf, F., Schild, R., 1976. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. Academic Press, New York.

Wengler, L., Weisrock, A., Brochier, J.-E., Brugal, J.-P., Fontigne, M., Magnin, F., Mathieu, J., Mercier, N., Ouammou, A., Reyss, J.-L., Senegas, F., Valladas, H., Wahl, L., 2002. Enregistrement fluviatile et paléoenvironnements au Pléistocène supérieur sur la bordure méridionale atlantique de l'Anti-Atlas (Oued Assaka, SO Marocain). Quaternaire 13, 179–192.


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