Bison occidentalis Lucas, 1898

Western bison



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Stelabison occidentalis Lucas, 1898; Bison antiquus occidentalis Lucas, 1898; Bison bison occidentalis Lucas, 1898; Bison priscus occidentalis Lucas, 1898


Rogers & Martin (1984) suggested that Bison occidentalis was a junior synonym of B. antiquus.


Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene



North America


Biology & Ecology










Adair, M. J. (ed.). (1989). Archaeological investigations at the North Cove Site, Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska. Kaw Valley Engineering and Development, Inc., Junction City, KS, vi + 1-106.

Adair, M. J., and Brown, K. L. (eds.). (1987). Prehistoric and historic cultural resources of selected sites at Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska: test excavations and determination of significance for 28 sites. Kaw Valley Engineering and Development, Inc., Junction City, KS, xiii + 594 pp.

Apland, Brian and Harrington, Charles R. (1994). Pleistocene bison skeleton (Bison bison cf. occidentalis) from Clayhurst Crossing, British Columbia. Géographie physique et Quaternaire 48(2): 213-233. [Abstract]

Bayrock, L. A. (1966). Bison in Alberta. Archaeological Society of Alberta Newsletter 8(Spring): 1-4.

Boeskorov, Gennady G. et al. (In Press, 2016). The Yukagir Bison: The exterior morphology of a complete frozen mummy of the extinct steppe bison, Bison priscus from the early Holocene of northern Yakutia, Russia. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.11.084 [Abstract]

Carrillo-López, R. et al. (2023). New records of Bison (Mammalia: Bovidae) from Southern Mexico and some comments on their distribution and biochronology. PalZ.

Hall, Stephen Austin. (1972). Holocene Bison occidentalis from Iowa. Journal of Mammalogy 53 (3): 604-606. [Abstract]

Hay, Oliver P. (1923). Description of remains of Bison occidentalis from central Minnesota. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum 2473: 1-8, 2 pls.

R. A. Rogers and L. D. Martin. (1984). The 12 Mile Creek Site: a reinvestigation. American Antiquity 49(4): 757-764.

Trylich, C. and Bayrock, L. A. (1966). Bison occidentalis Lucas found at Taber, Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 3(7): 987-995. [Abstract]

Michael C. Wilson, Leonard V. Hills, Beth Shapiro. (2008). Late Pleistocene northward-dispersing Bison antiquus from the Bighill Creek Formation, Gallelli Gravel Pit, Alberta, Canada, and the fate of Bison occidentalis. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 45(7): 827-859. [Abstract]

Skinner, Morris F. and Kaisen Ove C. (1947). The fossil bison of Alaska and preliminary revision of the genus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 89(3): 123-256, text figures 1-5, plates 8-26, tables 1-25, maps 1-3.


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