Bison latifrons Harlan, 1825

Giant bison, Giant Ice Age bison, Long-horned bison



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene



Canada & USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Harlan, R. (1825). Bos latifrons, (nobis.): Broad headed Fossil Ox. Fauna americana: being a description of the mammiferous animals inhabiting North America. Philadelphia: Anthony Finley. p. 273.

Other references:

Baskin, Jon A., Walls, Robert and Thomas, Ronny G. (2022). Bison antiquus and B. latifrons from the latest Rancholabrean (latest Pleistocene), Nueces River Valley, South Texas. In: Morgan et al. (eds.). Late Cenozoic Vertebrate Paleontology: Tribute to Arthur H. Harris. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 88: 213-224.

Bayrock, L. A. (1966). Bison in Alberta. Archaeological Society of Alberta Newsletter 8(Spring): 1-4.

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Carrillo-López, R. et al. (2023). New records of Bison (Mammalia: Bovidae) from Southern Mexico and some comments on their distribution and biochronology. PalZ.

Hibbard, Claude W. and Taylor, Dwight W. (1960). Two late Pleistocene faunas from southwestern Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan 16(1): 1-223 pp., 16 pls., 18 figs.

Hill, Ryan C. et al. (2015). Preserved proteins from extinct Bison latifrons identified by tandem mass spectrometry; hydroxylysine glycosides are a common feature of ancient collagen. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M114.047787 [Abstract]

Jefferson, G. T. 1991. A catalogue of Late Quaternary vertebrates from California. Part two: Mammals. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Technical Reports 7: 1-129.

King, C., 1878, Systematic geology in U.S. Geological exploration of the 40th parallel, v. 1: U.S. Army Engineering Department Professional Paper 18, 803 p.

McDonald, J. N. 1981. North American bison. Their classification and evolution. University California Press, Berkeley, 316 pp.

Mead, J. I., N. J. Czaplewski, and L. D. Agenbroad. 2005. Rancholabrean (Late Pleistocene) mammals and localities of Arizona. Pp. 139-180, in (R. D. McCord, ed.) Vertebrate Paleontology of Arizona, Mesa Southwest Museum Bulletin No. 11.

Morgan, G. S., and S. G. Lucas. 2005. Pleistocene vertebrate faunas in New Mexico from alluvial, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits. Pp. 185-248, in New Mexico's Ice Ages (Lucas, S. G., G. S. Morgan, and K. E. Zeigler, eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 28:1-280.

Rothschild, Bruce M., Martin, Larry D., Lev, Galit, Bercovier, Helen, Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila, Greenblatt, Charles, Donoghue, Helen, Spigelman, Mark and Brittain, David. (2001). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex DNA from an Extinct Bison Dated 17,000 Years before the Present. Clinical Infectious Diseases 33(3): 305-311. [Abstract]

Scott, E., and S. M. Cox. 2008. Pleistocene distribution of Bison (Mammalia; Artiodactyla) in the Mojave Desert of southern California and Nevada. Natural History Museum of Los Angels County, Science Series 41:359-382.

Skinner, Morris F. and Kaisen Ove C. (1947). The fossil bison of Alaska and preliminary revision of the genus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 89(3): 123-256, text figures 1-5, plates 8-26, tables 1-25, maps 1-3.

Smartt, R. A., S. G. Lucas, and D. J. Hafner. 1991. The giant bison (Bison latifrons) from the Middle Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 36: 136-137.

Springer, Kathleen B., Pigati, Jeffrey S. and Scott, Eric. (2017). Vertebrate Paleontology, Stratigraphy, and Paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA). Geology of the Intermountain West 4: 55-98.

Springer, K., E. Scott, C. Sagebiel, and L. K. Murray. 2009. The Diamond Valley Lake local fauna: Late Pleistocene vertebrates from inland southern California. Pp. 217-235, in Papers on geology, vertebrate paleontology, and biostratigraphy in honor of Michael O. Woodburne (L. G. Albright, III, ed.). Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 65, Flagstaff, Arizona.

Stephens, John J. (1960). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of a Late Pleistocene Basin, Harper County, Oklahoma. Geological Society of America Bulletin 71: 1675-1702.

Stock, C., and J. M. Harris. 1992. Rancho la Brea: A record of Pleistocene life in California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series no. 37, 7th ed.:i-xiv + 1-113.

Tomcho, Atticus; Dickens, Mary; Mead, Alfred J.; Mead, Heidi F.; Seminack, Christopher; and Patterson, David B. (2023). LATE PLEISTOCENE ECOSYSTEM EVOLUTION IN SOUTHEASTERN NORTH AMERICA: A TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACH USING FOSSIL AMERICAN ALLIGATOR ENAMEL ISOTOPES. Georgia Journal of Science 81(1): 83. [Abstract]


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