Antidorcas bondi Cooke & Wells, 1951

Bond’s springbok



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Gazella bondi Cooke & Wells, 1951


Conservation Status


Last record: c. 5,000 BC



South Africa & Zimbabwe


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Cooke, H. B. S. and Wells, L. W. (1951). Fossil remains from Chelmer, near Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia. S. Afr. J. Sci. 47(7): 205-209.


Other references:

Brink, J. S. and Lee-Thorp, J. A. (1992). The feeding niche of an extinct springbok, Antidorcas bondi, and its palaeoenvironmental meaning. South African Journal of Science 88: 227-229.

Lake Cave, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa. Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee.

Brown, A. J. V. and Verhagen, B. T. (1985). Two Antidorcas bondi individuals from the Late Stone Age site of Kruger Cave 35/83, Olifantsnek, Rustenburg District, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 81(2): 102.

Cain J.W., Krausman P.R., Germaine H.L. 2004 Antidorcas marsupialis. Mammalian Species, 1-7.

Churchill, S. E. et al. (2000). Erfkroon: a new Florisian fossil locality from fluvial contexts in the western Free State, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 96: 161-163.

Cruz-Uribe, K. (1983). The mammalian fauna from Redcliff Cave, Zimbabwe. S. Afr. Archaeol. Bull. 38: 7-16.

Ecker, Michaela and Lee-Thorp, Julia A. (In Press, 2018). The dietary ecology of the extinct springbok Antidorcas bondi. Quaternary International. [Abstract]

Faith, J. Tyler. (2014). Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa. Earth-Science Reviews 128: 105-121.

Gentry, A. W. (2010). Bovidae, pp. 741-796. In: Werdelin, L. and Sanders, W. J. (eds.). Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Klein, R. G. (1977). The mammalian fauna from the Middle and Later Stone Age (Later Pleistocene) levels of Border Cave, Natal Province, South Africa. S. Afr. Archaeol. Bull. 34: 14-27.

Klein, R. G. (1984). Later Stone Age faunal samples from Heuningneskrans Shelter (Transvaal) and Leopard's Hill Cave (Zambia). S. Afr. Archaeol. Bull. 39: 109-116.

Klein, R. G., Cruz-Uribe, K. and Beaumont, P. B. (1991). Environmental, ecological, and paleoanthropological implications of the Late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Equus Cave, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Quatern. Res. 36(1): 94-119.

Lacruz, R. S. et al. (2002). Palaeontology and geological context of a Middle Pleistocene faunal assemblage from the Gladysvale Cave, South Africa. Palaeont. afr. 38: 99-114.

Plug, I. (1993). The macrofaunal remains of wild animals form Abbot's Cave and Lame Sheep Shelter, Seacow Valley, Cape. Koedoe 36: 15-26.

Plug, I. (1997). Late Pleistocene and Holocene hunter–gatherers in the eastern highlands of South African and Lesotho: a faunal interpretation. J. Archaeol. Sci. 24: 715-727.

Plug, Ina and Badenhorst, Shaw. (2001). The Distribution of Macrornammals in Southern Africa Over the Past 30 000 Years: as reflected in animal remains from archaeological sites. Transvaal Museum Monographs No. 12. Pretoria: Transvaal Museum. [title pagefront matter, pp. 1-13, pp. 14-21, pp. 22-30 pp. 31-88, pp. 89-112, pp. 113-206, pp. 207-228references]

Plug, I. and Engela, R. (1992). The macrofaunal remains from recent excavations at Rose Cottage Cave, Orange Free State. S. Afr. Archaeol. Bull. 47: 16-25.

Plug, I. and Peters, J. (1991). Osteomorphological differences in  the appendicular skeleton of Antidorcas  marsupialis (Zimmerman, 1780) and Antidorcas bondi (Cooke and Wells, 1951) (Mammalia: Bovidae), with notes on the osteometry of Antidorcas bondi. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 35(17): 253-264.

de Ruiter, D., Brophy, J.K., Lewis, P.J., Churchill, S.E., Berger, L.R. (2008). Faunal assemblage composition and paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake, a Middle Stone Age locality in Gauteng Province, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 2008: 1102-1117.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Thackeray, John Francis and Watson, V. (1994). A preliminary account of faunal remains from Plovers Lake. South African Journal of Science 90(4): 231-232.

Turvey, Samuel T. (2009). Holocene mammal extinctions, pp. 41-61. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Turvey, Samuel T. and Fritz, Susanne A. (2011). The ghosts of mammals past: biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366(1577): 2564-2576. [Supplementary Information]

Vrba, E. (1973). Two species of Antidorcas Sundevall at Swartkrans (Mammalia: Bovidae). Ann. Transv. Mus. 28: 287-352.


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