Ilex ternatiflora (C.Wright) R.A.Howard (1986:15)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Quiina ternatiflora C.Wright in C.Wright & Sauvalle, Anales Acad. Ci. Méd. Habana 5: 204. 1868.


Now considered a synonym of Elaeodendron xylocarpum (syn. Cassine xylocarpa) (Humphreys et al., 2019:SD1; POWO, 2023), though Humphreys et al. (2019) strangely consider the species' basionym Quiina ternatiflora to be a synonym of Cassine attenuata.


Conservation Status

Invalid (synonym of Elaeodendron xylocarpum) (Humphreys et al., 2019; POWO, 2023)

Last record: mid-1800's?

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Las Pozas, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

C.Wright in C.Wright & Sauvalle in Sauvalle, F. A. (1868). Revisio Catalogi Grisebachiani. Anales Acad. Cien. Med. Fis. & Nat., Habana 5: 204.


Other references:

Areces-Mallea, A. E. (1997). A listing of threatened Cuban trees prepared for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project.

Areces-Mallea, A. E. (1998). Ilex ternatiflora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T33660A9801330. Downloaded on 18 November 2016.

Baillie, Jonathan E. M. and Butcher, Ellen R. (2012). Priceless or Worthless? The world’s most threatened species. London, UK: Zoological Society of London.

Borhidi, A. (1992). Letter to Hugh Synge concerning conservation status of Cuban plants. Includes annotations to 27 Aug 1991 TPU printout for Cuba.

Howard, Richard A. (1986). Notes on Quiina (Quiinaceae) and Ilex species (Aquifoliaceae) in Cuba. Brittonia 38: 13-16.

Humphreys, Aelys M., Govaerts, Rafaël, Ficinski, Sarah Z., Lughadha, Eimear Nic and Vorontsova, Maria S. (2019). Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1043-1047. [Supplementary Dataset 1]

León, H. and Alain, H. (1953). Flora de Cuba, vol. 3. Dicotiledoneas: Malpighiaceae a Myrtaceae. Ocas. Contr. Mus. Hist. Nat. Colegio “De La Salle” 13: 318.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (compilers). 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.

POWO. (2023). Ilex ternatiflora (C.Wright) R.A.Howard. Plants of the World Online (online resource). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. Available at: [Accessed 8 October 2023]

Synge, H. (1992). Information collected for Biodiversity Status Report.

Walter, Kerry S. and Gillett, Harriet J. (eds.). (1998). 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK: IUCN – The World Conservation Union. lxiv + 862 pp.

W.C.M.C. (1996). Threatened plant database of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. W.C.M.C., Cambridge, U.K.


<< Back to the Aquifoliales database