Theloderma moloch (Annandale, 1912)

Eerie tree frog, Assam Indonesian treefrog, Xizang warty treefrog, Black-spotted frog



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Nyctixalus moloch (Annandale, 1912); Phrynoderma moloch Annandale, 1912; Rhacophorus moloch (Annandale, 1912)


Conservation Status

Last record: 1911 or 1912

Rediscovered in May 2014

IUCN RedList status: Vulnerable



India (Arunachal Pradesh & Assam) and China (Xizang)


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Annandale, Nelson. (1912). Zoological results of the Abor Expedition, 1911-1912. I. Batrachia. Records of the Indian Museum 8: 7-36.


Other references:

Ahl, E. (1931). Amphibia, Anura III, Polypedatidae. Das Tierreich 55: xvi + 477.

Bordoloi, S., Borah, M. M., Sharma, K. K. and Kalita, S. N. (2000). An overview of Amphibian fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of the Assam Science Society [2000]: 363-371.

Chanda, S. K. (2002). Handbook - Indian Amphibians. Calcutta/Kolkata: Zoological Survey of India.

Das, I. and Dutta, S. K. (1998). Checklist of the amphibians of India, with English common names. Hamadryad. Madras 23: 63-68.

Dinesh, K. P., C. Radhakrishnan, K. V. Gururaja, and G. Bhatta. 2009. An annotated checklist of Amphibia of India with some insights into the patterns of species discoveries, distribution and endemism. Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional Papers 302: 1-153.

Dubois, A. 1981. Liste des genres et sous-genres nominaux de Ranoidea (Amphibiens Anoures) du monde, avec identification de leurs espèces types; consequences nomenclaturales. Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Nuova Serie, Supplemento. Firenze 15: 225-284.

Dutta, Sushil K. (1997). Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka. Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar.

Sushil Dutta, Sabitry Bordoloi, Mohini Mohan Borah. 2004. Theloderma moloch. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T58805A11841755. . Downloaded on 17 October 2015.

Fei, L. (1999). [Atlas of Amphibians of China].  Henan Press of Science and Technology.

Fei, L., C.-y. Ye, and Y.-z. Huang. (1990). [Key to Chinese Amphibians].  Chongqing, China: Publishing House for Scientific and Technological Literature.

Frank, N. and Ramus, E. (1995). Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of the World.  Pottsville, Pennsylvania: N. G. Publishing Inc.

Frost, D. R. (ed.). (1985). Amphibian Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference. Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A.: Association of Systematics Collections and Allen Press.

Lalronunga, Samuel and Lalrinchhana, C. (2017). Morphological and molecular characterization of Theloderma moloch (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot of northeast India. Sci. Vis. 17(3): 148-159.

Cheng Li, Mian Hou, Guo-hua Yu, Fang Yan, Bing-zhang Li, Ke Jiang, Pi-peng Li, Nikolai L. Orlov. (2016). Rediscovery of Theloderma moloch (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Southeast Tibet, China after 102 Years. Russian Journal of Herpetology 23(1): 41-54.

Li, P.-p., E.-m. Zhao, and B.-j. Dong. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Tibet. Beijing: Science Press.

Liem, S. S. (1970). The morphology, systematics and evolution of the old world tree frogs (Rhacophoridae and Hyperoliidae). Fieldiana: Zoology 57: vii + 145 pp.

Mathew, R., and N. Sen. 2010. Pictorial Guide to Amphibians of North East India.  Kolkata, India: Zoological Survey of India.

Molur, S. and Walker, S. (1998). Conservation assessment of the herpetofauna of India - An overview. Hamadryad 23(2): 169-178.

Nguyen, T., Matsui, M., and Eto, K. (2015). Mitochondrial phylogeny of an Asian tree frog genus Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 85: 59-67.

Orlov, N. L., S. K. Dutta, H. V. Ghate, and Y. Kent. (2006). New species of Theloderma from Kon Tum Provicince (Vietnam) and Nagaland State (India) (Anura: Rhacophoridae). Russian Journal of Herpetology 13: 165-175.

Pawar, S. S. and Birand, A. (2001). A survey of amphibians, reptiles, and birds in Northeast India. CERC Technical Report No. 6, Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore, India.

Jayanta Kumar Roy, Ramie Husneara Begum, Mohammad Firoz Ahmed. (2017). Report on Poorly Known Theloderma moloch (Annandale, 1912) from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. Russian Journal of Herpetology 24(3): 248-250. [Abstract]

Wolf, S. 1936. Revision der Untergattung Rhacophorus (ausschliesslich der Madagaskar-Formen). Bulletin of the Raffles Museum. Singapore 12: 137-217.

Zhao, E.-M., and Adler, K. A. (1993). Herpetology of China.  Oxford, Ohio: Contributions to Herpetology 10. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.


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