Melanobatrachus indicus Beddome, 1878

Galaxy frog, Black narrow-mouth frog



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Last record: 1878

Rediscovered in 1997

IUCN RedList status: Endangered





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Beddome, R. H. (1878). Description of a new batrachian from southern India, belonging to the family Phryniscidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1878: 722–723.

Other references:

Biju, S.D. 2001. A synopsis to the frog fauna of the Western Ghats, India. Occasional Publication 1. ISCB: 1-24.

S.D. Biju, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, Gajanan Dasaramji Bhuddhe, Sushil Dutta, Chelmala Srinivasulu, S.P. Vijayakumar. 2004. Melanobatrachus indicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T13032A3406563. Downloaded on 12 February 2017.

Daltry, J.C. and Martin, G. 1997. Rediscovery of the black narrow-mouth frog Melanobatrachus indicus Beddome, 1878. Hamadryad: 57-58.

Dutta, S.K. 1997. Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka. Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar.

Ishwar, N.M. 2000. Melanobatrachus indicus Beddome, 1878, resighted at the Anaimalai Hills, southern India. Hamadryad: 50-51.

Rajkumar K.P. Benjamin Tapley, Jyoti Das, Claudia Gray, P.S. Easa. (2021). Survival blueprint for the conservation and management of Galaxy Frog and its habitat in the Southern Western Ghats, India. EDGE of Existence Programme, ZSL, London. 27 pp.

Scheffers, Brett R., Yong, Ding Li, Harris, J. Berton C., Giam, Xingli and Sodhi, Navjot S. (2011). The world’s rediscovered species: back from the brink? PLoS ONE 6(7): e22531. [Supporting Information (Table S1)]

Vasudevan, K. 1997. Rediscovery of the black microhylid Melanobatrachus indicus (Beddome, 1878). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society: 170-171.

Vasudevan, K. 2000. An amazing frog from the Western Ghats. Biodiversity India: 12.


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