Incilius periglenes Savage, 1966

Golden toad, Alajuela toad, Monte Verde golden toad, Monte Verde toad, Orange toad



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Bufo periglenes Savage, 1966; Cranopsis periglenes Savage, 1966


Conservation Status


Last record: 15 May 1989

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Monteverde, Costa Rica


Biology & Ecology




At least 170 preserved specimens exist.



Source: Wikimedia Commons.



Original scientific description:

Savage, Jay. (1966). An extraordinary new toad (Bufo) from Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 14: 153-167.


Other references:

Anchukaitis, K.J. and Evans, M.N. 2010. Tropical cloud forest climate variability and the demise of the Monteverde golden toad. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 107(11): 5036-5040.

Cheng T.L., Rovito, S.M., Wake, D.B. and Vredenburg, V.T. 2011. Coincident mass extirpation of neotropical amphibians with the emergence of the infectious fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. PNAS 108(23): 9502- 9507.

Coleman, Jeffrey L. (2020). Anthropogenic Drivers and Chytridiomycosis: Untangling the Disappearances of the Golden Toad and Costa Rican Variable Harlequin Toad and Addressing Amphibian Decline. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 55(8): 157-162.

Crump, M.L. 1989. Life history consequences of feeding versus non-feeding in a facultatively non-feeding toad larva. Oecologia: 486-489.

Crump, M.L., Hensley, F.R. and Clark, K.L. (1992). Apparent decline of the golden toad: Underground or extinct? Copeia 1992(2): 413-420. [Abstract]

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2020). Incilius periglenes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T3172A54357699. Downloaded on 23 June 2021.

Jacobson, Susan K. and Vandenberg, John J. (1991). Reproductive Ecology of the Endangered Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes). Journal of Herpetology 25(3): 321-327. [Abstract]

Philipps, K. (1990). Frogs in trouble. International Wildlife 20(6): 4-11.

Pounds, J.A., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Foster, P.N., La Marca, E., Masters, K.L., Merino-Viteri, A., Puschendorf, R., Ron, S.R., Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Still, C.J. and Young, B.E. 2006. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439: 161-167.

Pounds, J. A. and Crump, M. L. (1994). Amphibian declines and climate disturbance: The case of the golden toad and the harlequin frog. Conservation Biology: 72-85.

Pounds, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L. and Campbell, J.H. 1999. Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature: 611-615.

Pounds, J.A., Fogden, P.L., Savage, J.M. and Gorman, G.C. (1997). Test of null models for amphibian declines on a tropical mountain. Conserv. Biol. 11: 1307-1322.

Alan Pounds, Jay Savage, Federico Bolaños. (2004). Incilius periglenes. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 10 February 2013.

Regalado, Pedro Galán. (2015). Los Anfibios y Reptiles Extinguidos: Herpetofauna Desaparecida Desde el Año 1500. Monografías de la Universidade da Coruña 155: 1-509.

Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L. (2013). Preserved Specimens of the Extinct Golden Toad of Monteverde (Cranopsis periglenes) Tested Negative for the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Journal of Herpetology 47(3): 456-458. [Abstract]

Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.


<< Back to the Anura (Frogs and Toads) database