Incilius cristatus (Wiegmann, 1833:660-661)

Large-crested toad



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Bufo cristatus Wiegmann, 1833 (original combination); Bufo occipitalis Camerano, 1879


Conservation Status

Rediscovered in 1998

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Sierra Madre Oriental (central), Puebla and Veracruz States, Mexico


Biology & Ecology




Type specimens: "Cotjpes, Mus. Nat. Berlin Nos. 3523, 3524" (Smith & Taylor, 1948:44)

Type locality: "Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico" (Smith & Taylor, 1948:44)


The holotype of B. occipitalis has been lost (Smith & Taylor, 1948:44)






Original scientific description:

Wiegmann, A.F.A. 1833. Herpetologischen Beyträge. I. Ueber die mexicanischen Kröten nebst bemerkungen über ihren verwandte Arten anderer Weltgegenden. Isis von Oken 26: 651-662.


Other references:

Andreone, Franco et al. (2022). Threatened and extinct amphibians and reptiles in Italian natural history collections are useful conservation tools. Acta Herpetologica 17(1): 45-58. doi:10.36253/a_h-12349

Brandt, T. and Buschmann, H. 2004. Die Herpetofauna des Landschaftsschutzgebietes "Feuchtgebiet internationaler Bedeutung Steinhuder Meer" in Niedersachsen. Zeitschrift fuer Feldherpetologie: 1-40.

Camerano, Atti Accad. Sci. Torono, vol. 14, 1879, pp. 889, 890

Clause, A.G., K.A. Soto-Huerta, and M.A. Greeley. 2015. Incilius cristatus (Large-crested Toad) Reproductive behavior. Herpetological Review 46: 232–233.

Gleed-Owen, C. 1996. Amphibian remains identified from the gut of a grass snake and a polecat. British Herpetological Society Bulletin: 21-23.

Kellogg, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 160, 1932, pp. 33, 48-49, fig. 9, a, b.

Mendelson III, J.R. 1997. A new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from Oaxaca, Mexico with comments on the status of Bufo cavifrons and Bufo cristatus. Herpetologica 53: 268-286.

Mendelson III, J.R. 1998. Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae: Bufo cristatus Wiegmann. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 646: 1-2.

Mendelson III, J.R., and L. Canseco-Márquez. 1998. Geographic distribution. Bufo cristatus. Mexico: Puebla: Municipio de Zacapoaxtla, Apulco, Cascada de La Gloria. Herpetological Review 29:106.

Oropeza-Sánchez, Marco Tulio et al. (2019). Population characteristics, habitat, and diet of the large Crested toad (Incilius cristatus; Anura: Bufonidae): a critically endangered species endemic to Mexico. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 13(3): 558-568.

Georgina Santos-Barrera, Luis Canseco-Márquez, Luis Carrillo. 2010. Incilius cristatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54617A11175118. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.

Scheffers, Brett R., Yong, Ding Li, Harris, J. Berton C., Giam, Xingli and Sodhi, Navjot S. (2011). The world’s rediscovered species: back from the brink? PLoS ONE 6(7): e22531. [Supporting Information (Table S1)]

Smith, Hobart M. and Taylor, Edward H. (1948). An Annotated Checklist and Key to the Amphibia of Mexico. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 194: iv + 118 pp.

Taylor and Smith, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 95, 1945, p. 559, pi. 23, figs. 5, 6.

Vázquez-Corzas, F.G. 2012. Aportes al conocimiento de Incilius cristatus (Anura: Bufonidae), una especie prioritaria para su conservación. B.Sc. Thesis, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, México. 71 p.


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