Incilius cristatus (Wiegmann, 1833:660-661)

Large-crested toad



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Bufo cristatus Wiegmann, 1833 (original combination); Bufo occipitalis Camerano, 1879


Conservation Status

Rediscovered in 1998

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Sierra Madre Oriental (central), Puebla and Veracruz States, Mexico


Biology & Ecology




Type specimens: "Cotjpes, Mus. Nat. Berlin Nos. 3523, 3524" (Smith & Taylor, 1948:44)

Type locality: "Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico" (Smith & Taylor, 1948:44)


The holotype of B. occipitalis has been lost (Smith & Taylor, 1948:44)






Original scientific description:

Wiegmann, A.F.A. 1833. Herpetologischen Beyträge. I. Ueber die mexicanischen Kröten nebst bemerkungen über ihren verwandte Arten anderer Weltgegenden. Isis von Oken 26: 651-662.


Other references:

Andreone, Franco et al. (2022). Threatened and extinct amphibians and reptiles in Italian natural history collections are useful conservation tools. Acta Herpetologica 17(1): 45-58. doi:10.36253/a_h-12349

Brandt, T. and Buschmann, H. 2004. Die Herpetofauna des Landschaftsschutzgebietes "Feuchtgebiet internationaler Bedeutung Steinhuder Meer" in Niedersachsen. Zeitschrift fuer Feldherpetologie: 1-40.

Camerano, Atti Accad. Sci. Torono, vol. 14, 1879, pp. 889, 890

Clause, A.G., K.A. Soto-Huerta, and M.A. Greeley. 2015. Incilius cristatus (Large-crested Toad) Reproductive behavior. Herpetological Review 46: 232–233.

Gleed-Owen, C. 1996. Amphibian remains identified from the gut of a grass snake and a polecat. British Herpetological Society Bulletin: 21-23.

Kellogg, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 160, 1932, pp. 33, 48-49, fig. 9, a, b.

Mendelson III, J.R. 1997. A new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from Oaxaca, Mexico with comments on the status of Bufo cavifrons and Bufo cristatus. Herpetologica 53: 268-286.

Mendelson III, J.R. 1998. Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae: Bufo cristatus Wiegmann. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 646: 1-2.

Mendelson III, J.R., and L. Canseco-Márquez. 1998. Geographic distribution. Bufo cristatus. Mexico: Puebla: Municipio de Zacapoaxtla, Apulco, Cascada de La Gloria. Herpetological Review 29:106.

Oropeza-Sánchez, Marco Tulio et al. (2019). Population characteristics, habitat, and diet of the large Crested toad (Incilius cristatus; Anura: Bufonidae): a critically endangered species endemic to Mexico. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 13(3): 558-568.

Georgina Santos-Barrera, Luis Canseco-Márquez, Luis Carrillo. 2010. Incilius cristatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T54617A11175118. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.

Smith, Hobart M. and Taylor, Edward H. (1948). An Annotated Checklist and Key to the Amphibia of Mexico. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 194: iv + 118 pp.

Taylor and Smith, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 95, 1945, p. 559, pi. 23, figs. 5, 6.

Vázquez-Corzas, F.G. 2012. Aportes al conocimiento de Incilius cristatus (Anura: Bufonidae), una especie prioritaria para su conservación. B.Sc. Thesis, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, México. 71 p.


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