Atelopus senex Taylor, 1952

Pass stubfoot toad, Wizened harlequin frog



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: 1986

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Costa Rica


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Taylor, E. H. (1952). A review of the frogs and toads of Costa Rica. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 35: 577-942.

Other references:

Barrantes, U. (1986). Observaciones de campo del comportamiento reproductivo de Atelopus senex (Anura: Bufonidae) Universidad de Costa Rica, San José. Unpublished, Master's Thesis.

Federico Bolaños, Gerardo Chaves, Uriel Barrantes. (2004). Atelopus senex. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 14 July 2013.

Cocroft, R.B., McDiarmid, R.W., Jaslow, A.P. and Ruiz-Carranza, P.M. 1990. Vocalizations of eight species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) with comments on communication in the genus. Copeia 1990(3): 631-643.

Cossel, Jr., J.O., and Kubicki, B. 2017. Field Guide to the Frogs and Toads of Costa Rica. BookBaby.

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2020. Atelopus senex. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T54549A54358350. Accessed on 19 June 2022.

Jaynes, Kyle E. et al. (2022). Harlequin frog rediscoveries provide insights into species persistence in the face of drastic amphibian declines. Biological Conservation 276: 109784.

La Marca, E., Lips, K.R., Lötters, S., Puschendorf, R., Ibáñez, R., Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Schulte, R., Marty, C., Castro, F., Manzanilla-Puppo, J., Garcia-Perez, J.E., Toral, E., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Pounds, J.A. and Young, B. 2005. Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in Neotropical harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica 37(2): 190-201.

Lötters, S. 1996. The Neotropical Toad Genus Atelopus. Checklist - Biology - Distribution. Vences, M. and Glaw, F. Verlags GbR, Köln, Germany.

Pounds, J.A., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Foster, P.N., La Marca, E., Masters, K.L., Merino-Viteri, A., Puschendorf, R., Ron, S.R., Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Still, C.J. and Young, B.E. 2006. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439: 161-167.

Ramírez, Juan P. et al. (2020). Recent and Rapid Radiation of the Highly Endangered Harlequin Frogs (Atelopus) into Central America Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Diversity 12(9): 360.

Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna between two Continents, between two Seas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.


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