Atelopus halihelos Peters, 1973

Morona-Santiago stubfoot toad



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Last record: 1984 or 1989

Rediscovered in 2010 (Jaynes et al., 2022)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Peters, J. A. (1973). The frog genus Atelopus in Ecuador (Anura: Bufonidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology [1973]: 1-49.


Other references:

Duellman, W.E. and Lynch, J.D. 1988. Anuran amphibians from the Cordillera de Cutucu, Ecuador. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 140: 125-142.

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2018). Atelopus halihelos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54517A98641706. Downloaded on 06 July 2018.

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2018). Atelopus halihelos (errata version published in 2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T54517A190202584. Accessed on 10 July 2022.

Jaynes, Kyle E. et al. (2022). Harlequin frog rediscoveries provide insights into species persistence in the face of drastic amphibian declines. Biological Conservation 276: 109784.

La Marca, E., Lips, K.R., Lötters, S., Puschendorf, R., Ibáñez, R., Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Schulte, R., Marty, C., Castro, F., Manzanilla-Puppo, J., Garcia-Perez, J.E., Toral, E., Bolaños, F., Chaves, G., Pounds, J.A. and Young, B. (2005). Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in Neotropical harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica 37(2): 190-201.

Lötters, S. 1996. The Neotropical Toad Genus Atelopus. Checklist - Biology - Distribution. Vences, M. and Glaw, F. Verlags GbR, Köln, Germany.

Martín-Torrijos, L., Sandoval-Sierra, J.V., Muñoz, J., Diéguez-Uribeondo, J., Bosch, J. and Guayasamin, J.M. (2016). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) threaten Andean amphibians. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2(1): 26-36.

Pounds, J.A., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Foster, P.N., La Marca, E., Masters, K.L., Merino-Viteri, A., Puschendorf, R., Ron, S.R., Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Still, C.J. and Young, B.E. (2006). Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439: 161-167.


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