Adenomus kandianus Günther, 1872

Kandyan dwarf toad, Kandian torrent toad



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Bufo kandianus (Günther, 1872); Adenomus dasi Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 1998


Conservation Status

Last record: 1872

Rediscovered in 2012

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Sri Lanka


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Günther, A. (1872). Descriptions of some Ceylonese Reptiles and Batrachians. Annales and Magazine of Natural History [1872]: 85-88.


Other references:

Anonymous. (January 14, 2010). Rediscovery of "Adenomus kandianus"; an extinct amphibian from Sri Lanka, on YBA (Young Biologists Association of Sri Lanka) website. (

Gabadage, D. E. et al. (2014). On the discovery of second living population of Adenomus kandianus (Günther, 1872) from Sri Lanka: with the bioecology, and detailed redescription to the species. Herpetotropicos 10(1-2): 37-49.

Gabadage, D. E., Karunarathna, D. M. S. S., Henkanaththegedara, S. M., Botejue, W. M. S., Madawala, M. B. and Surasinghe, T. D. (2017). Ecology of the Critically Endangered Kandian Torrent Toad (Adenomus kandianus) in Pidurutalagala, Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the International Forestry and Environment Symposium 2016, Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. pp. 15-?. [Abstract]

Hance, Jeremy. (June 18, 2012). Extinct toad rediscovered after hiding for 133 years in Sri Lanka. Available at:

IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2012). Adenomus kandianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. ( Downloaded on 20 January 2015.

Karunarathna, D.M.S. Suranjan et al. (2012). Second known locality of the Critically Endangered Adenomus dasi (Bufonidae) from Samanala Nature Reserve in Sri Lanka. Frog Leg 18(2): 2-7.

Karunarathna, D.M.S. Suranjan et al. (2016). Ecology and demography of the Critically Endangered Kandian torrent toad Adenomus kandianus: a long-lost endemic species of Sri Lanka. Oryx.

Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum and Meegaskumbura, Madhava. (2012). The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Amphibians in Sri Lanka, pp. 88-98. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka: Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D. K. and Wijesundara, S. (eds.). Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. viii + 476 pp.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. and Pethiyagoda, R. (1998). A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura), with description of two new species. Journal of South Asian Natural History [1998]: 213-246.

Meegaskumbura, Madhava et al. (2015). The Sri Lankan torrent toads (Bufonidae: Adenominae: Adenomus): species boundaries assessed using multiple criteria. Zootaxa 3911(2): 245-261.

Meegaskumbura, M., Wijayathilaka, N., Abayalath, N. and Senevirathne, G. (2015). Realities of rarity: climatically and ecologically restricted, critically endangered Kandian Torrent Toads (Adenomus kandianus) breed en masse. PeerJ PrePrints 3: e1964.

Regalado, Pedro Galán. (2015). Los Anfibios y Reptiles Extinguidos: Herpetofauna Desaparecida Desde el Año 1500. Monografías de la Universidade da Coruña 155: 1-509.

Scheffers, Brett R., Yong, Ding Li, Harris, J. Berton C., Giam, Xingli and Sodhi, Navjot S. (2011). The world’s rediscovered species: back from the brink? PLoS ONE 6(7): e22531. [Supporting Information (Table S1)]

Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P. and Young, B. (2008). Threatened amphibians of the world. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. 758 pp.

Wickramasinghe, L. J. Mendis, Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga and Wickramasinghe, Nethu. (2012). Back from the dead: The world’s rarest toad Adenomus kandianus rediscovered in Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 3347: 63-68. [Abstract]


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