Thambetochen xanion Olson & James, 1991

O'ahu Moa-nalo



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status




O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands, USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Olson, Storrs L. and James, Helen F. (1991). Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs, No. 45: 1-88.


Other references:

Athens, J. S., Tuggle, H. D., Ward, J. V. and Welch, D. J. (2002). Avifaunal extinctions, vegetation change, and Polynesian impacts in prehistoric Hawai’i. Archaeol Ocean 35: 57-78.

Dumot, Dennis and Fujihana, Casie. (2016). Feeding, Digestion, and Cellular Metabolism of O​ʻ​ahu’s Moa nalo, the ​Thambetochen xanion. Zool 430. 11 pp.

Hearty, P. J., James, Helen F. and Olson, Storrs L. (2005). The Geological Context of Middle Pleistocene Crater Lake Deposits and Fossil Birds at Ulupau Head, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. In: Alcover, J. A. and Bover, P. (eds.). Proceedings of the International Symposium “Insular Vertebrate Evolution: the Palaeontological Approach”. Monografies de la Societat d’Història Natural de les Balears, 12: 113-128.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

James, Helen F. (1987). A late Pleistocene avifauna from the island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. de Lyon 99: 221-230.

Langenwalter, Paul E. II and James, Helen F. (2015). Extinct and Extirpated Birds and Other Vertebrates in the Faunal Assemblage of Halawa Cave, a Rockshelter in North Halawa Valley, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Hawaiian Archaeology 14: 65-78.

Olson SL and James HF (1982) Prodromus of the fossil avifauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 365, 1–59.

Olson SL and James HF (1984) The role of Polynesians in the extinction of the avifauna of the Hawaiian islands. In Martin PS and Klein RG, eds, Quaternary Extinctions: a Prehistoric Revolution, pp. 768–780. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Sorenson, Michael D. et al. (1999). Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 266: 2187-2193.

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Young, H. Glyn, Tonge, Simon J. and Hume, Julian Pender. (1996). Review of Holocene wildfowl extinctions. Wildfowl 47: 167-181.


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