Tadorna cristata Kuroda, 1917:1

Crested shelduck, Crested sheldrake, Korean crested shelduck, Phoenix-head(ed) sheldrake



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Pseudotadorna cristata Kuroda, 1917:1; Tadorna casarca Querquedula falcata? Sclater, 1890


Conservation Status


Last record: September 1916 (Hume & Walters, 2012); December 1916?; (May (June?) 1964?)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered


Unconfirmed reports of this species post-1964 suggest that it may persist in some small portion of its former range. Surveys are needed to search its vast historical range in order to assess its current status. Several reports from China in the 1980's indicate that that country should be the highest priority for surveys.



(China?), Japan (Hokkaido), Korea & Russia


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Kuroda, Nagamichi. (1917). [description of Tadorna cristata]. Tori 1: 1. [in Japanese]


Other references:

BirdLife International (2000) Threatened Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge.

BirdLife International. (2012). Tadorna cristata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. ( Downloaded on 08 July 2012.

Butchart, S. H. M.; Collar, N. J.; Crosby, M. J. & Tobias, J. A. (2005). Asian enigmas: "Lost" and poorly known birds: targets for birders in Asia. Birding Asia 3: 41-49.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Stattersfield, A. J. and Brooks, T. M. (2006). Going or gone: defining ‘Possibly Extinct’ species to give a truer picture of recent extinctions. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126A: 7-24.

Carlton, JT, Geller, JB, Reaka-Kudla, ML and Norse, EA (1999) Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30, 515–538.

Collar, N. J. et al. (2001). Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. Third edition, part 3.Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.

Collar NJ, Crosby MJ, Stattersfield AJ. 1995. Birds to Watch 2: The World List of Threatened Birds. Birdlife Conservation, No. 4. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Inst. Press. 407 pp.

Collen, Ben, Purvis, Andy and Mace, Georgina M. (2010). When is a species really extinct? Testing extinction inference from a sighting record to inform conservation assessment. Diversity and Distributions 16(5): 755-764. [Abstract]

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

del Monte-Luna, Pablo et al. (2023). A review of recent and future marine extinctions. Cambridge Prisms: Extinction 1: e13.

Delacour, J. and Scott, P. (1954-64). The Waterfowl of the World, 4 vols. London: Country Life.

Fuller, Errol. (1988). Extinct Birds. New York: Facts on File Publications. 256 pp.

Green, Andy J. (1992). Wildfowl at Risk, 1992. Wildfowl 43: 160-184. [automatic download]

Greenway, J. C. jnr. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World, revised edition.New York: Dover Publications.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser. 544 pp.

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292.

Kuroda, Nagamichi. (1924). [On a third specimen of a rare species Pseudotadorna cristata Kuroda]. Tori 4(18): 171-180. In Japanese.

Kuroda, Nagamichi. (1940). An old record for a pair of Pseudotadorna cristata obtained near Hakodate. Tori 10: 739-741.

Labzyuk, W. I. and Nazarov, J. N. (1967). O redkikh i novykh ptitsakh yuzhnogo Primorya (On rare and new birds from the Southern Primorye). Ornitologia (Moskva) 8: 353-357.

Labzyuk, W. I. (1972). Chochlataya pyeganka w yuzhnom Primorye (Crested Shelduck in the Southern Primorye). Ornitologia (Moskva) 10: 356-357.

Nowak, Eugeniusz. (1983). Die Schopfkasarka, Tadorna cristata (Kuroda, 1917)—eine vom Aussterben bedrohte Tierart (Wissensstand und Vorschläge zum Schutz). Bonner zoologische Beitrage. Bonn. 34(1-3): 235-271.

Nowak, Eugeniusz. (1984). Über das vermutliche Brut- und Überwinterungsgebiet der Schopfkasarka, Tadorna cristata / On the presumable breeding and wintering range of the Crested Shelduck, Tadorna cristata. Journal für Ornithologie 125: 103-105.

Phillips, J. C. (1922-26). A Natural History of the Ducks, 4 vols. London: Longmans Green, and, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Sok, O. Myong. (1984). Wiederentdeckung der Schopfkasarka, Tadorna cristata, in der Koreanischen Demokratischen Volksrepublik. Journal of Ornithology 125(1): 102-103. [Abstract]

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Uchida, S. (1917). [On Pseudotadorna cristata]. Tori 2(6): 6-8. In Japanese. [published in 1918?]

Vermeij, G. J. (1993). Biogeography of recently extinct marine species: Implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 7(2): 391-397.

Wolff, WJ (2000) The south-eastern North Sea: Losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years. Biological Conservation 95, 209–217.

Zhao Zhengjie. (1992). The history and controversy on the study of Crested Shelduck. China Nature 1992: 17-19.


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