Clicky

Mergus australis Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841:320

Auckland Islands merganser, Southern merganser, Miuweka

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Nesonetta aucklandica Gray, 1844; Promergus australis Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841:320

 

Conservation Status

Extinct

Last record: 1901 (Hume & Walters, 2012); 9 January 1902 (Fuller, 1988)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct

 

Distribution

Auckland Islands (& South Island?), New Zealand

 

Biology & Ecology

 

 

Hypodigm

Known preserved material (after Kear & Scarlett, 1970):

26 skins

3 almost complete skeletons

1 carcass (preserved in alcohol)

plus some additional bones

 

Media

Above: Southern Merganser. Mergus australis. From the series: Extinct Birds of New Zealand., 2005, Masterton, by Paul Martinson. Purchased 2006. © Te Papa. CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Te Papa (2006-0010-1/33)

 

References

Original scientific description:

Hombron, J. and Jacquinot, H. (1841). A description of the Auckland Islands Merganser. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 16: 320.

 

Other references:

Alexander, D. (1902). Cruise of the Tutanekai to the southern islands December 1901–January 1902. Manuscript MSY-4600, Alexander Turnbull Library (National Library of New Zealand), Wellington, New Zealand.

BirdLife International. (2012). Mergus australis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. (http://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 19 May 2013.

BirdLife International. 2016. Mergus australis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22680496A92864737. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22680496A92864737.en. Accessed on 02 July 2022.

Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened Birds of the World, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.

Brosse J., 1983: Les tours du monde des explorateurs. Les grands voyages maritimes, 1764-1843. Paris: Bordas, 231 pp.

Buller, W. L. (1905). Supplement to the Birds of New Zealand. Vol. 2. London.

Chapman, F. E. (1891). The outlying islands south of New Zealand. Trans. N. Z. Inst. 23: 491-522.

Chilton, C. (ed.). (1909). The Sub-antarctic Islands of New Zealand, 2 vols. Canterbury: Philosophical Institution of Canterbury.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Delacour, J. and Scott, P. (1954-64). The Waterfowl of the World, 4 vols. London: Country Life.

Fuller, Errol. (1988). Extinct Birds. New York: Facts on File Publications. 256 pp.

Gray, G. R. (1844-45). In The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror. London: Janson.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Hügel, Baron von. (1875). A new specimen of the Auckland Islands Merganser. Ibis Ser. 3, 5: 392.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Humphrey, P. S. (1955). The relationships of the sea-ducks (tribe Mergini). Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan.

Hutton, F. W. (1902). On a marine Galaxias from the Auckland Islands. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 34: 198-199.

Hutton, F. W. and Drummond, J. (1905). The Animals of New Zealand. Christchurch and London.

Johnsgard, P. (1968). Waterfowl. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Jouanin, Christian. (1962). Inventaire des oiseaux éteints ou en voie d’extinction conservés au Muséum de Paris. Terre et Vie 109: 275-301.

Kear, Janet. (2005). Auckland Island Merganser, pp. 746-748. In: Kear, Janet (ed.). Ducks, Geese and Swans of the World. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Kear, Janet and Scarlett, R. J. (1970). The Auckland Islands Merganser. Wildfowl  21: 78-86. [automatic download]

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292.

Livezey, Bradley C. (1989). Phylogenetic relationships and incipient flightlessness of the extinct Auckland Islands merganser. The Wilson Bulletin 101(3): 410-435.

Mathews, G. M. and Iredale, Tom. (1913). A reference list to the birds of New Zealand. Ibis [1913]: 402-452.

McCormick, R. (1842). A sketch of the Antarctic regions, embracing a few passing remarks, geographical and ornithological . Tasmanian Journal of Natural Sciences 1(4): 241-247.

McCormick, R. (1884). Voyages of discovery in the Arctic and Antarctic seas and round the world. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington.

Millener, P. R. (1991). The Quaternary avifauna of New Zealand, pp. 1317-1344. In: Vickers-Rich, P. V.; Monaghan, J. M.; Baird, R. F.; Rich, T. H. ed. Vertebrate palaeontology of Australasia. Melbourne, Pioneer Design Studios in cooperation with the Monash University Publications Committee. 1437 pp.

Millener, P. R. (1996). Extinct birds, pp. 113-120. In: Anonymous (ed.) The Chatham Islands: heritage and conservation. Christchurch, Canterbury University Press and New Zealand Department of Conservation. 136 pp.

Miskelly, C. M., Elliott, G. P., Parker, G. C., Rexer-Huber, K., Russ, R. B, Taylor, R. H., Tennyson, A. J. D. and Walker, K. J. (2020). Birds of the Auckland Islands, New Zealand subantarctic. Notornis 67(1): 59-151.

Miskelly, Colin M., Forsdick, Natalie J., Gill, Brian J., Palma, Ricardo L., Rawlence, Nicolas J. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. (2022). Amendments to the 2010 Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand Occasional Publication No. 2. Wellington: Ornithological Society of New Zealand.

Ogilvie-Grant, W. R. (1905). On the birds procured by the Earl of Ranfurly in New Zealand and the adjacent islands. Ibis, ser. 8, 5: 543-602.

Oliver, W. R. B. (1955). New Zealand Birds. 2nd edn. Wellington: Reed.

Phillips, J. C. (1922-26). A Natural History of the Ducks, 4 vols. London: Longmans Green, and, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Reischek, A. (1889). Notes on the islands to the south of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst. 21: 378-389.

Reischek, A. (1930). Yesterdays in Maoriland. Wellington: Whitcombe and Tombs.

Robertson, H. A., Baird, K. A., Elliott, G. P., Hitchmough, R. A., McArthur, N. J., Makan, T. D., Miskelly, Colin M., O’Donnell, C. F. J., Sagar, P. M., Scofield, R. P., Taylor, G. A. and Michel, P. (2021). Conservation status of birds in Aotearoa New Zealand, 2021. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 36. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 43 pp.

Hugh Robertson, John Dowding, Graeme Elliott, Rod Hitchmough, Colin Miskelly, Colin O’Donnell, Ralph Powlesland, Paul Sagar, Paul Scofield, Graeme Taylor. (2013). Conservation status of New Zealand birds, 2012. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 4. 22 pp.

Salvadori, T. (1895). Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum.Vol. 27. London.

Scott, Peter. (1973). Species Extinction in Birds. Bird Study 20(2): 93-102.

Stattersfield, A.J., Crosby, M.J., Long, A.J. and Wege, D.C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Tennyson, Alan J. D. and Martinson, P. (2006). Extinct Birds of New Zealand. Te Papa Press, Wellington.

Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

Voisin, C. and Voisin, J.-F. (2016). List of type specimens of birds in the collections of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris, France). 27. Phoenicopteridae and Anatidae. Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 185: 65-75.

Waite, E. R. (1909). The Vertebrata of the Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand, pp. 542-600. In: Chilton, C. (ed.). The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand, volume 2. Wellington: Canterbury Philosophical Society.

Westerkov, K. (1960). Birds of Campbell Island. Wildlife Publications, New Zealand, no. 61.

Williams, G. R. (1962). Extinction and the land and freshwater-inhabiting birds of New Zealand. Notornis 10(1): 15-32.

Williams, G. R. (1964). Extinction and the anatidae of New Zealand. The Wildfowl Trust Fifteenth Annual Report 15: 140-146. [automatic download]

Williams, Murray. (2012). A merganser at Auckland Islands, New Zealand. Wildfowl 62: 3-36.

Williams, Murray, Holdaway, Richard N. and Rogers, Karyne M. (2012). Feeding environments of New Zealand’s extinct merganser revealed by stable isotope analyses. Wildfowl 62: 190-203.

Williams, M., A. J. D. Tennyson and D. Sim. (2014). Island differentiation of New Zealand’s extinct mergansers (Anatidae: Mergini), with description of a new species from Chatham Island. Wildfowl 64: 3-34. [automatic download]

Williams, G. R. and Weller, M. W. (1974). Unsuccessful search for the Auckland Islands Merganser (Mergus australis). Notornis 21(3): 247-249.

Wilson, R. A. (1959). Bird Islands of New Zealand. Wellington: Whitcombe and Tombs.

Worthy, T. H. (1998). Fossil avifaunas from the Old Neck and Native Island, Stewart Island-Polynesian middens or natural sites? Records of the Canterbury Museum 12: 49-82.

Young, H. Glyn, Tonge, Simon J. and Hume, Julian Pender. (1996). Review of Holocene wildfowl extinctions. Wildfowl 47: 167-181.

 

<< Back to the Anseriformes (Waterfowl) database