Cygnus sumnerensis chathamicus Oliver, 1955:605

Chatham Islands (black) swan, Poūwa



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Chenopis chathamicus Oliver, 1955:605; Cygnus chathamicus Oliver, 1955:605?; Cygnus chathamensis (author?; year?)


Conservation Status




Chatham Islands, New Zealand


Biology & Ecology










Dawson, E. W. (1958). Re-discoveries of the New Zealand subfossil birds named by H. O. Forbes. The Ibis 100: 232-237.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Millener, P. R. (1996). Extinct birds, pp. 113-120. In: Anonymous (ed.) The Chatham Islands: heritage and conservation. Christchurch, Canterbury University Press and New Zealand Department of Conservation. 136 pp.

Millener, P. R. (1999). The history of the Chatham Islands' bird fauna of the last 7000 years - A  chronicle of change and extinction. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89: 85-109.

Miskelly, Colin M., Forsdick, Natalie J., Gill, Brian J., Palma, Ricardo L., Rawlence, Nicolas J. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. (2022). Amendments to the 2010 Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand Occasional Publication No. 2. Wellington: Ornithological Society of New Zealand.

Oliver, W. R. B. (1930). New Zealand birds. Wellington: Fine Arts (New Zealand) Ltd. viii + 541 pp.

Nicolas J. Rawlence, Afroditi Kardamaki, Luke J. Easton, Alan J. D. Tennyson, R. Paul Scofield, Jonathan M. Waters. (2017). Ancient DNA and morphometric analysis reveal extinction and replacement of New Zealand's unique black swans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 284(1859): [pagination?]. [Abstract]

Tennyson, Alan J. D. and Bartle, J. A. (2008). Catalogue of type specimens of birds in the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Tuhinga 19: 185-207.

Williams, G. R. (1962). Extinction and the land and freshwater-inhabiting birds of New Zealand. Notornis 10(1): 15-32.

Worthy, Trevor H. (1998). A remarkable fossil and archaeological avifauna from Marfells Beach, Lake Grassmere, South Island, New Zealand. Records of the Canterbury Museum 12: 79-176.

Worthy, Trevor H. and Holdaway, Richard N. (2002). The Lost World of the Moa. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press. xxxiii + 718 pp.


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