Cygnus sumnerensis chathamicus Oliver, 1955:603

Chatham Islands (black) swan, Poūwa



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Chenopis chathamicus Oliver, 1955:605; Cygnus chathamicus Oliver, 1955: New Zealand Birds, 2nd edition: 603 – Chatham Islands.; Cygnus chathamica; Dawson 1958, Ibis 100(2): 233. Unjustified emendation.; Cygnus chathamensis; Worthy 1998, Rec. Cant. Museum 12(1): 110. Unjustified emendation.; Cygnus atratus; Checklist Committee 2010, Checklist Birds N.Z.: 32. In part, as junior synonym.; Cygnus sumnerensis chathamicus Oliver; Rawlence, Kardamaki et al. (2017), Proc. Roy. Soc. B 284: 20170876: 3.


Conservation Status




Chatham Islands, New Zealand


Biology & Ecology










Checklist Committee (OSNZ). (2010). Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica (4th ed.). Ornithological Society of New Zealand & Te Papa Press, Wellington. [p. 32]

Checklist Committee (OSNZ). (2022). Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand (5th edition). Ornithological Society of New Zealand Occasional Publication No. 1. Wellington: Ornithological Society of New Zealand. [p. 26]

Dawson, E. W. (1958). Re-discoveries of the New Zealand subfossil birds named by H. O. Forbes. The Ibis 100: 232-237.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Millener, P. R. (1996). Extinct birds, pp. 113-120. In: Anonymous (ed.) The Chatham Islands: heritage and conservation. Christchurch, Canterbury University Press and New Zealand Department of Conservation. 136 pp.

Millener PR (1999) The history of the Chatham Islands’ bird fauna of the last 7000 years—a chronicle of change and extinction. In Olson SL, ed., Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington DC ., 4–7 June 1996. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89, 85–109.

Miskelly, Colin M., Forsdick, Natalie J., Gill, Brian J., Palma, Ricardo L., Rawlence, Nicolas J. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. (2022). Amendments to the 2010 Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand Occasional Publication No. 2. Wellington: Ornithological Society of New Zealand.

Oliver, W. R. B. (1930). New Zealand birds. Wellington: Fine Arts (New Zealand) Ltd. viii + 541 pp.

Nicolas J. Rawlence, Afroditi Kardamaki, Luke J. Easton, Alan J. D. Tennyson, R. Paul Scofield, Jonathan M. Waters. (2017). Ancient DNA and morphometric analysis reveal extinction and replacement of New Zealand's unique black swans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 284(1859): [pagination?]. [Abstract]

Tennyson, Alan J. D. and Bartle, J. A. (2008). Catalogue of type specimens of birds in the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Tuhinga 19: 185-207.

Tennyson, Alan J. D. and Martinson, Paul. (2006). Extinct Birds of New Zealand. Wellington: Te Papa Press.

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Williams, G. R. (1962). Extinction and the land and freshwater-inhabiting birds of New Zealand. Notornis 10(1): 15-32.

Worthy, Trevor H. (1998). A remarkable fossil and archaeological avifauna from Marfells Beach, Lake Grassmere, South Island, New Zealand. Records of the Canterbury Museum 12: 79-176.

Worthy, Trevor H. and Holdaway, Richard N. (2002). The Lost World of the Moa. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press. xxxiii + 718 pp.


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