Cygnus falconeri Parker, 1865

Giant swan, Maltese swan, Falconer's swan (proposed)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status






Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Parker, W. K. (1865). Preliminary notes on some fossil birds from the Zebbug Cave, Malta. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865: 752-753.


Other references:

Hunt, Christopher O. and Schembri, Patrick J. (1999). Quaternary environments and biogeography of the Maltese Islands, pp. 41-75. In: Mifsud, A. and Savona Ventura, C. (eds.). Facets of Maltese Prehistory. Malta: The Prehistoric Society of Malta, vii + 243 pp.

Mlíkovský, Jiří. (2002). Cenozoic Birds of the World: Part 1: Europe. Praha, Czech Republic: Ninox Press. 406 pp.

Northcote, E. Marjorie. (1981-83). The giant Maltese swan. Il-Merill (Malta) 22: 6-8.

Northcote, E. Marjorie. (1982). Size, form and habitat of the extinct Maltese swan Cygnus falconeri. Ibis 124(2): 148-158. [Abstract]

Northcote, E. Marjorie. (1992). Swans (Cygnus) and cranes (Grus) from the Maltese Pleistocene. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series 36: 285-292.

Parker, W. K. (1869). On some fossil birds from the Zebbug Cave, Malta. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 6: 119-24.

Pavia, M. (2000). Le avifaune pleistoceniche dell’Italia meridionale. Tesi Università di Torino Scienze de la Terra, Torino.

Pavia, M. (2001). The Middle Pleistocene fossil avifauna from the "Elephas mnaidriensis Faunal Complex" of Sicily (Italy): preliminary results, pp. 497-501. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.


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